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Table 2 Linear regression analyses assessing potential baseline and step-data predictors of waist circumference change

From: Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

Group Predictor Variable n Crude WC change Univariate Multivariable Approach 1a Multivariable Approach 2b
     WC change (cm) P-value WC change (cm) P-value WC change (cm) P-value
  DEMOGRAPHICS         
1 Age (year) 539 - -0.02 0.5 -0.02 0.5 -0.02 0.5
  Sex         
     Female 305 -1.78 reference reference reference
     Male 234 -1.33 0.45 0.4 0.48 0.4 0.48 0.4
2 Socio Economic Status (by SEIFA %)       
     Most Advantaged 189 -1.46 reference reference reference
     Advantaged 224 -1.50 -0.04 0.9 -0.16 0.7 -0.16 0.7
     Disadvantaged 92 -1.83 -0.37 0.8 -0.49 0.6 -0.49 0.6
     Most Disadvantaged 33 -2.68 -1.21 0.5 -1.07 0.4 -1.07 0.4
  Tertiary Education         
     Not completed 115 -0.04 reference reference reference
     Completed 423 -2.04 -2.00 0.046 -2.13 0.016 -2.13 0.016
  Occupation         
     Professional 221 -1.61 reference reference reference
     Associate professional 97 -2.41 -0.80 0.09 -1.05 0.09 -1.05 0.09
     Manager 96 -1.71 -0.10 0.9 0.07 0.9 0.07 0.9
     Clerical or Service 76 -1.10 0.51 0.7 0.15 0.9 0.15 0.9
  Marital Status         
     Married/de facto 366 -1.38 reference reference reference
     Widowed/separated/divorced 46 -3.21 -1.84 0.07 -1.62 0.2 -1.62 0.2
     Never married 120 -1.85 -0.47 0.7 -0.46 0.6 -0.46 0.6
  BASELINE MEASURES         
3    Prior GCC® Participationc 532 -1.62 0.08 0.9 0.09 0.8 0.09 0.8
  Reasons for Participation c         
  Health 531 -1.94 -0.93 0.09 -0.71 0.3 -0.71 0.3
  To look my best 531 -1.82 -0.45 0.1 -0.27 0.3 -0.27 0.3
  Fitness 531 -1.75 -0.36 0.2 -0.09 0.7 -0.09 0.7
  Colleagues 531 -1.72 -0.20 0.6 -0.24 0.7 -0.24 0.7
  Friends or family 531 -2.14 -0.52 0.6 -0.92 0.4 -0.92 0.4
  Behavioural Measures         
4 Fruit Intake         
     Not meeting guidelines 364 -1.21 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 168 -2.58 -1.37 0.06 -1.04 0.09 -1.01 0.1
  Vegetable Intake         
     Not meeting guidelines 455 -1.49 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 77 -2.56 -1.08 0.06 -0.38 0.6 -0.51 0.5
  Takeaway Dinner         
     Once or less per month 246 -1.68 reference     
     About once a week 214 -1.63 0.05 0.9 -0.70 0.2 -0.62 0.3
     More than once a week 72 -1.56 0.12 0.9 -0.67 0.6 -0.61 0.6
  Alcohol         
     Not meeting guidelines 307 -1.42 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 225 -1.95 -0.54 0.2 -0.58 0.035 -0.65 0.016
  Tobacco         
     Smoker 50 -1.00 reference     
     Non-smoker 482 -1.71 -0.71 0.4 0.13 0.9 0.32 0.7
  Physical Activity         
     Not meeting guidelines 322 -1.49 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 209 -1.87 -0.38 0.5 0.00 1.0 -0.10 0.9
  Sitting Time (per hour per day)         
     Weekday 530 - 0.19 0.015 0.09 0.048 0.10 0.06
     Weekend 529 - 0.12 0.026 0.28 0.018 0.28 0.025
  Psychosocial Measures         
5    Physical Functioning (SF12) 523 - -0.06 0.09 -0.05 0.08 -0.05 0.2
     Mental Functioning (SF12) 523 - 0.00 0.9 -0.02 0.6 -0.01 0.5
  Anthropometric Measures d       
6 Blood Pressure (mmHg)         
     Systolic 517 - -0.01 0.5 0.00 1.0 0.00 0.9
     Diastolic 517 - 0.03 0.2 -0.03 0.6 -0.03 0.5
     Not meeting guidelines 90 -1.72 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 427 -1.51 0.20 0.6     
  Heart rate (Mean, SD) 517 - -0.03 0.3 -0.02 0.5 -0.04 0.2
  Weight (Mean, SD)e 537 - -0.02 0.4     
  Body Mass Index         
     Body Mass Index 222 - -0.07 0.08 -0.08 0.08 -0.08 0.08
     Not meeting guidelines 315 -1.68 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 222 -1.51 0.17 0.8     
  Waist circumferencef         
     Waist circumference 539 - -0.12 0.001     
     Not meeting guidelines 288 -2.86 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 251 -0.12 2.74 0.001     
  Biomedical Measures (fasting) d       
7 Total Cholesterol         
     Total Cholesterol 535 - 0.20 0.4 0.49 0.034 0.38 0.029
     Not meeting guidelines 150 -1.66 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 385 -1.63 0.03 1.0     
  Glucose         
     Glucose 535 - 0.12 0.3 0.06 0.2 0.02 0.09
     Not meeting guidelines 20 0.05 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 535 1.49 4.23 0.3     
  Triglycerides         
     Triglycerides 535 - 0.83 0.7 0.49 0.1 0.99 1.0
     Not meeting guidelines 109 0.10 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 426 2.43 2.33 0.1     
  Predicted risk scores d         
8    Cardiovascular disease risk (next 10 years)         
     CVD risk (continuous) 504 - -0.03 0.6 -0.08 0.2 -0.11 0.4
     Low-risk 452 -1.61 reference     
     Intermediate-risk 45 -1.76 -0.14 0.9     
     High-risk 7 -2.91 -1.30 0.056     
     Diabetes risk (next 5 years)f         
     Diabetes risk (continuous) 529 - -0.09 0.09     
     Low-risk 202 -1.26 reference     
     Intermediate-risk 276 -1.55 -0.28 0.6     
     High-risk 51 -3.45 -2.19 0.004     
  WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS g       
9    Public ownership (vs. private) 539 -2.00 -0.67 0.4 -0.57 0.2 -0.37 0.5
     Outer city location (vs. inner city) 539 -2.22 -0.37 0.7 0.16 0.8 0.06 1.0
  PROCESS MEASURES         
  Step data d         
10    Step average per day (per 10,000 steps) 538 - -0.20 0.7 -0.25 0.8 0.12 0.9
     <10,000 steps average (per day) 179 -1.48 reference      
     Meeting ≥10,000 steps average (per day) 359 -1.65 -0.17 0.7     
  1. a Associated risk-factor subgroups adjusted only for baseline demographic confounders
  2. b Associated risk-factor subgroups adjusted for all potential predictors within the analysis step and above
  3. c The reference group for this binary variable is 'no'. The reference group data is not shown.
  4. d Continuous variables chosen over categorical variables
  5. e Excluded due to the inclusion of body mass index (BMI)
  6. f Excluded from model as baseline WC was not considered as a predictor.
  7. g The reference group for this binary variable is shown in brackets. The reference group data is not shown.