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Table 2 Visual acuity at diabetes diagnosis according to age, sex, retinopathy, and cataract

From: Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study

  Visual acuity a  
  Normal Moderately
impaired
Blind All patients
  n = 1,163 n = 67 n = 11 n = 1,241
Age (years)     
   40- < 60 429 (36.9) 1 (1.5) 0 (0) 430 (34.7)
   60- < 70 366 (31.5) 10 (14.9) 1 (9.1) 377 (30.4)
   70+ 368 (31.6) 56 (83.6) 10 (90.9) 434 (35.0)
Sex     
   Male 622 (53.5) 28 (41.8) 3 (27.3) 653 (52.6)
   Female 541 (46.5) 39 (58.2) 8 (72.7) 588 (47.4)
Retinopathy a     
   Diabetic retinopathy     
Microaneurysms only 13 (1.1) 0 (0) 1 (9.1) 14 (1.1)
Further diabetic retinopathy 34 (2.9) 2 (3.0) 2 (18.2) 38 (3.1)
   Age-related macular degeneration, AMD 117 (10.1) 30 (44.8) 7 (63.6) 154 (12.4)
   Other 104 (8.9) 7 (10.5) 1 (9.1) 112 (9.0)
   No retinopathy 908 (78.3) 32 (47.8) 1 (9.1) 941 (76.0)
Cataract a 278 (24.2) 55 (82.1) 4 (36.4) 337 (27.5)
Ophthalmologist's indication of
reason for visual impairment a, b
    
   Retinopathy of all sorts 76 (6.5) 13 (19.4) 5 (45.4) 94 (7.6)
   Cataract 171 (14.7) 25 (37.3) 1 (9.1) 197 (15.9)
   Other causes 42 (3.6) 6 (9.0) 2 (18.2) 50 (4.0)
   Combination of causes 45 (3.9) 20 (29.9) 2 (18.2) 67 (5.4)
   None 829 (71.3) 3 (4.5) 1 (9.1) 833 (67.1)
  1. Data are numbers (column-%)
  2. a Refers to best seeing eye
  3. b The ophthalmologists answered this question even for patients who were mildly visually impaired although their visual acuity was normal per definition, i.e. ≥ 0.5