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Table 1 Average changes in visual acuity during the first 6 years after diabetes diagnosis according to baseline patient characteristics

From: Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study

      Test of difference in level of logMAR at diabetes diagnosis a Test of difference in change of logMAR after diabetes diagnosis b   
Characteristic at diagnosis Category n Average logMAR at diabetes diagnosis Average yearly change in logMAR after diabetes diagnosis Un-adjusted
p
Age and sex adjusted
p
Un-adjusted
p
Age and sex adjusted
p
Median decimal acuity at diabetes diagnosis Median decimal acuity 5.6 years after diabetes diagnosis
Total   1241 -0.24 -0.0250      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
Sex Female 588 -0.30 -0.0343 0.001 0.070 0.0006 0.017 0.90 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  Male 653 -0.19 -0.0160      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.67-1.00)
Age (years) 40- < 60 430 -0.05 -0.0068 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 1.00 (1.00-1.00) 1.00 (0.80-1.00)
  60- < 70 377 -0.18 -0.0125      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 70 434 -0.47 -0.0769      0.70 (0.60-0.95) 0.60 (0.40-0.80)
Living alone Yes 384 -0.39 -0.0527 < 0.0001 0.0009 < 0.0001 0.002 0.80 (0.67-1.00) 0.67 (0.50-0.90)
  No 835 -0.17 -0.0158      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.70-1.00)
Education Basic 935 -0.26 -0.0293 0.006 0.67 0.008 0.30 1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  Higher 252 -0.15 -0.0114      1.00 (0.90-1.00) 1.00 (0.70-1.00)
Residence Countryside 486 -0.26 -0.0269 0.41 0.98 0.56 0.60 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
  Larger towns 430 -0.24 -0.0211      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
  Copenhagen area 273 -0.20 -0.0211      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
Familial disposition to DM No 659 -0.25 -0.0314 0.58 0.76 0.041 0.028 1.00 (0.75-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
  Yes 466 -0.23 -0.0195      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
Diagnostic plasma glucose (mmol/l) < 10 220 -0.23 -0.0227 0.93 0.47 0.36 0.063 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
  10-< 17 706 -0.24 -0.0281      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 17 315 -0.24 -0.0193      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
Haemoglobin A1c (%) c < 9 298 -0.20 -0.0239 0.45 0.35 0.083 0.071 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  9- < 11 347 -0.24 -0.0347      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 11 396 -0.25 -0.0195      1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) < 6 495 -0.27 -0.0190 0.22 0.55 0.20 0.076 1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  6-< 7 366 -0.24 -0.0297      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 7 358 -0.20 -0.0277      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l) < 2 616 -0.24 -0.0201 0.89 0.75 0.022 0.0008 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  2- < 3 320 -0.25 -0.0227      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  ≥ 3 279 -0.23 -0.0388      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
Urinary albumin (mg/l) < 15 703 -0.19 -0.0205 0.004 0.015 0.038 0.13 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  15-< 200 437 -0.31 -0.0347      1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  ≥ 200 59 -0.21 -0.0172      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) < 130 1166 -0.23 -0.0238 0.012 0.33 0.012 0.062 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 130 54 -0.43 -0.0634      0.80 (0.67-1.00) 0.75 (0.50-1.00)
Height - men (cm) < 165 69 -0.30 -0.0273 0.11 0.58 0.53 0.96 0.95 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  165- < 180 470 -0.18 -0.0156      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 180 113 -0.14 -0.0135      1.00 (0.90-1.00) 1.00 (0.80-1.00)
Height - women (cm) < 150 19 -0.47 -0.0587 0.050 0.47 0.12 0.91 0.70 (0.70-0.80) 0.60 (0.50-0.80)
  150- < 165 415 -0.32 -0.0390      0.80 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.50-1.00)
  ≥ 165 154 -0.20 -0.0203      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.70-1.00)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) < 140 366 -0.18 -0.0174 0.023 0.78 0.036 0.63 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.67-1.00)
  140-< 160 414 -0.25 -0.0223      1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
  ≥ 160 459 -0.28 -0.0338      1.00 (0.75-1.00) 0.80 (0.62-1.00)
Resting heart rate (bpm) < 80 754 -0.23 -0.0208 0.17 0.09 0.040 0.066 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  80- < 90 333 -0.23 -0.0361      1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  ≥ 90 149 -0.32 -0.0219      1.00 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
Cardiovascular disease No 849 -0.20 -0.0224 < 0.0001 0.045 0.035 0.55 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  Yes 367 -0.34 -0.0357      0.90 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.50-1.00)
Peripheral neuropathy No 992 -0.22 -0.0218 0.013 0.14 0.013 0.016 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  Yes 232 -0.32 -0.0392      0.90 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
Self-rated health Excellent or good 557 -0.18 -0.0200 0.0006 0.003 0.043 0.13 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.70-1.00)
  Fair, poor or very poor 663 -0.29 -0.0309      0.90 (0.70-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
Smoking Never 372 -0.33 -0.0369 0.0007 0.32 0.009 0.50 0.90 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  Former 431 -0.22 -0.0206      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
  Current 414 -0.18 -0.0186      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.70-1.00)
Physical activity Sedentary 323 -0.39 -0.0364 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.035 0.20 0.80 (0.60-1.00) 0.70 (0.50-1.00)
  Non-sedentary 893 -0.19 -0.0227      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
Weight - men (kg) < 80 200 -0.24 -0.0172 0.19 0.85 0.64 0.81 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  80- < 90 196 -0.18 -0.0204      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.80-1.00)
  ≥ 90 255 -0.16 -0.0130      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.70-1.00)
Weight - women (kg) < 70 200 -0.39 -0.0485 0.008 0.21 0.040 0.068 0.80 (0.67-1.00) 0.70 (0.50-1.00)
  70-< 80 157 -0.29 -0.0208      0.90 (0.67-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  ≥ 80 231 -0.21 -0.0319      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.63-1.00)
Diabetic retinopathy None 1186 -0.23 -0.0243 0.040 0.012 < 0.0001 0.0005 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  Microaneurysms only 14 -0.54 0.0174      1.00 (0.90-1.00) 0.85 (0.80-1.00)
  Further retinopathy 38 -0.38 -0.1164      0.80 (0.63-1.00) 0.60 (0.50-0.80)
Age-related macular degeneration No 1087 -0.18 -0.0170 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  Yes 154 -0.67 -0.1000      0.67 (0.50-0.80) 0.50 (0.40-0.67)
Cataract No 889 -0.14 -0.0145 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0004 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 1.00 (0.70-1.00)
  Yes 337 -0.51 -0.0698      0.70 (0.50-0.80) 0.60 (0.50-0.80)
Other retinopathy No 1129 -0.23 -0.0239 0.32 0.87 0.18 0.93 1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  Yes 112 -0.29 -0.0370      0.80 (0.67-1.00) 0.67 (0.50-1.00)
Eye pressure (mmHg) < 16 369 -0.25 -0.0215 0.58 0.64 0.031 0.045 1.00 (0.70-1.00) 0.90 (0.67-1.00)
  16- < 20 592 -0.22 -0.0234      1.00 (0.80-1.00) 0.80 (0.67-1.00)
  ≥ 20 151 -0.28 -0.0441      1.00 (0.75-1.00) 0.80 (0.60-1.00)
  1. Visual acuity is given as logMAR and decimal acuity. Estimates of logMAR are from a mixed model using all available measurements of visual acuity which come from the best seeing eye in all cases. p values are from Wald tests. Median values (interquartile range) of decimal acuity are from the first and the last eye examination
  2. a Testing whether the mean of the level of visual acuity at diabetes diagnosis is different for the two or three levels of the stratification variable
  3. b Testing whether the mean yearly change of visual acuity after diabetes diagnosis is different for the two or three levels of the stratification variable, given the level of the visual acuity at diabetes diagnosis. This test focuses on differences in slope between the linear curves describing changes in visual acuity
  4. c HbA1c measured within 90 days of diabetes diagnosis. Reference range: 5.4-7.4