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Table 4 Relative risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) from multinominal logistic regression for women without depression or PMS, women with PMS only, women with major depression only and women with PMS and major depression (n = 2349)

From: The interrelation between premenstrual syndrome and major depression: Results from a population-based sample

  No major depression PMS   PMS   Major depression   PMS and major depression
   RRR (95% CI) RRR (95% CI) RRR (95% CI)
Age        
14-24 1 1   1   1  
25-34 1 1.14 (0.67-1.94) 1.30 (0.62-2.69) 1.22 (0.30-4.95)
35-44 1 1.35 (0.79-2.3) 1.06 (0.49-2.29) 0.52 (0.11-2.50)
45-54 1 1.04 (0.56-1.93) 0.96 (0.41-2.27) 0.92 (0.18-4.71)
Language regions        
German-speaking 1 1   1   1  
French-speaking 1 1.15 (0.86-1.55) 0.74 (0.49-1.12) 0.90 (0.40-2.03)
Italian-Speaking 1 1.84 (1.18-2.89)** 0.43 (0.17-1.07) 0.76 (0.17-3.33)
Marital status        
Unmarried 1 1   1   1  
Married 1 0.72 (0.46-1.11) 1.38 (0.73-2.61) 1.08 (0.33-3.50)
Widowed 1 0.31 (0.04-2.40) 1.07 (0.13-9.02) + +
Separated/Divorced 1 0.90 (0.54-1.50) 1.26 (0.65-2.46) 2.00 (0.47-8.54)
Nationality        
Swiss 1 1   1   1  
Other 1 1.08 (0.73-1.62) 1.44 (0.84-2.48) 1.77 (0.68-4.61)
Education        
Compulsory school 1 1   1   1  
Secondary school 1 3.83 (1.36-10.83)* 1.72 (0.62-4.74) 0.73 (0.17-3.06)
College/university 1 3.72 (1.30-10.68)* 1.51 (0.53-4.30) 0.68 (0.15-3.20)
Living arrangements        
Living alone 1 1   1   1  
Couple without child 1 0.90 (0.57-1.44) 0.56 (0.30-1.06) 3.07 (0.86-10.97)
Couple with child 1 1.29 (0.81-2.04) 0.58 (0.30-1.12) 1.92 (0.49-7.51)
Single parent 1 0.96 (0.56-1.65) 1.20 (0.62-2.30) 0.85 (0.15-4.70)
Other 1 1.52 (0.53-4.33) + + 3.77 (0.31-45.4)
Pill as oral contraception        
No 1 1   1   1  
Yes 1 0.67 (0.44-1.00) 1.67 (1.03-2.72)* 1.10 (0.39-3.15)
Alcohol consumption        
No consumption 1 1   1   1  
Mild consumption 1 0.78 (0.58-1.04) 1.32 (0.84-2.06) 0.96 (0.41-2.27)
Moderate to severe consumption 1 0.34 (0.13-0.88)* 1.87 (0.79-4.44) 1.30 (0.22-7.51)
Psychotropic drug consumption        
None 1 1   1   1  
Antidepr. only 1 1.10 (0.43-2.79) 3.16 (1.40-7.13)** 5.38 (1.40-20.72)*
Tranquillizer/sleeping pills only 1 1.85 (0.95-3.59) 0.70 (0.24-2.06) 1.86 (0.40-8.62)
Tranquillizer/sleeping pills and antidepressants 1 1.18 (0.34-4.10) 2.91 (0.95-8.90) 5.18 (1.13-23.84)*
Psychological distress        
Low 1 1   1   1  
Medium 1 1.23 (0.86-1.77) 1.68 (1.05-2.69)* 2.33 (0.89-6.10)
High 1 1.77 (0.97-3.23) 3.32 (1.67-6.57)** 7.97 (2.64-24.01)***
Mastery        
Low 1 1   1   1  
Medium 1 0.87 (0.63-1.19) 0.51 (0.33-0.79)** 0.42 (0.17-0.99)*
High 1 0.39 (0.26-0.60)*** 0.34 (0.19-0.61)*** 0.15 (0.03-0.73)*
Self-rated health        
Poor health 1 1   1   1  
Fair health 1 0.81 (0.16-4.09) 0.16 (0.04-0.64)* 0.18 (0.03-1.05)
Good health 1 0.46 (0.10-2.16) 0.08 (0.02-0.28)*** 0.06 (0.01-0.33)**
Sleeping difficulties        
Not at all 1 1   1   1  
A bit 1 1.25 (0.93-1.69) 1.25 (0.82-1.89) 1.27 (0.54-2.99)
Strongly 1 1.03 (0.62-1.73) 1.41 (0.75-2.65) 0.68 (0.20-2.29)
Work satisfaction 1       
Extremely satisfied 1 1   1   1  
Very satisfied 1 1.19 (0.80-1.76) 0.84 (0.50-1.4) 0.78 (0.25-2.48)
Fairly satisfied 1 1.64 (1.07-2.51)* 1.38 (0.8-2.38) 0.67 (0.18-2.46)
Partly satisfied to extremely dissatisfied 1 2.42 (1.51-3.87)*** 1.05 (0.54-2.04) 1.70 (0.51-5.63)
  1. +: Not enough cases in this category to analyze; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001