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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of socio-demographic factors associated with stunting among primary school children in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 1860)

From: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

Characteristics Crude OR (95% CI) P Value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P Value
Gender     
   Boys 1.13 (0.81-1.57) 0.481 0.91 (0.62-1.34) 0.641
   Girls Reference   Reference  
Age     
   5-6 years (60-83 months) Reference   Reference  
   7-8 years (84-107 months) 1.56 (0.89-2.74) 0.118 1.68 (0.95-3.00) 0.076
   9-10 years (108-131 months) 2.58 (1.52-4.41) < 0.001 2.94 (1.68-5.16) < 0.001
   11-12 years (132-155 months) 5.35 (2.97-9.62) < 0.001 3.60 (1.89-6.88) < 0.001
Area and socioeconomic status (SES)     
   Urban, high SES Reference   Reference  
   Urban, middle SES 0.84 (0.37-1.90) 0.679 0.72 (0.30-1.74) 0.465
   Urban, low SES 3.91 (2.09-7.33) < 0.001 2.58 (1.15-5.81) 0.025
   Rural, low/disadvantaged SES 7.33 (4.02-13.38) < 0.001 2.49 (0.95-6.53) 0.063
Neighborhood income     
   Low 9.82 (4.27-22.61) < 0.001 4.62 (1.63-13.10) 0.004
   Middle 2.07 (0.87-4.95) 0.102 1.81 (0.69-4.74) 0.226
   High Reference   Reference  
Parental education     
   Illiterate 3.44 (2.03-5.83) < 0.001 0.55 (0.26-1.16) 0.117
   High school 2.92 (1.75-4.89) < 0.001 0.80 (0.41-1.55) 0.507
   College 0.83 (0.45-1.55) 0.562 0.61 (0.32-1.19) 0.146
   Higher education Reference   Reference  
Number of siblings     
   No Reference   Reference  
   1-3 1.33 (0.18-10.03) 0.781 1.07 (0.13-8.73) 0.952
   > 3 3.44 (0.46-25.69) 0.228 1.12 (0.13-9.41) 0.915
Number of persons in child's living room     
   No Reference   Reference  
   1-3 7.76 (1.06-58.72) 0.044 4.49 (0.60-33.65) 0.144
   > 3 13.63 (1.88-98.66) 0.010 4.25 (0.56-32.16) 0.161
Smoking in living place     
   Yes 1.91 (1.36-2.67) < 0.001 1.33 (0.92-1.93) 0.136
   No Reference   Reference