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Table 4 Age adjusted and multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mental health problems (GHQ12, severe anxiety & use of antidepressant medication) in relation to the level of economic hardships (the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009).

From: Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

  Psychological distress (GHQ12) Severe anxiety   Use of antidepressant medications
  OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)  
Men (N = 23,153) Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Combined economic       
hardships measure       
None (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mild 1.73 (1.58-1.91) 1.52 (1.32-1.76) 2.45 (2.03-2.96) 1.53 (1.12-2.08) 1.91 (1.59-2.29) 1.55 (1.21-1.97)
Severe 3.52 (3.15-3.93) 2.55 (2.14-3.05) 6.40 (5.30-7.73) 3.87 (2.85-5.25) 3.67 (2.99-4.52) 2.74 (2.09-3.61)
Very severe 5.40 (4.59-4.34) 3.07 (2.35-4.01) 10.9 (8.63-13.77) 4.83 (3.25-7.16) 6.94 (5.36-8.99) 3.58 (2.47-5.20)
Women (N = 28,261)       
Combined economic       
hardships measure       
None (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Mild 1.50 (1.40-1.62) 1.49 (1.33-1.66) 1.83 (1.60-2.10) 1.53 (1.24-1.88) 1.50 (1.33-1.70) 1.00
Severe 2.57 (2.36-2.79) 2.21 (1.94-2.53) 3.89 (3.39-4.45) 2.67 (2.15-3.32) 2.78 (2.43-3.19) 1.28 (1.09-1.50)
Very severe 3.72 (3.28-4.23) 2.63 (2.16-3.21) 6.82 (5.74-8.11) 3.01 (2.27-4.04) 4.22 (3.50-4.09) 1.78 (1.47-2.15)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age
  2. Model 2 adjusted for age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness