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Table 3 Age adjusted and multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mental health problems (GHQ12, severe anxiety & use of antidepressant medication) in relation to economic hardship (inability to pay ordinary bills, lack of cash reserves, low household income) Women (the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009).

From: Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

  Psychological distress (GHQ12) Severe anxiety Use of antidepressant medications
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Women (N = 28,261) Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Inability to pay for ordinary bills       
No (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 2.56 (2.38-2.74) 1.81 (1.61-2.04) 3.56 (3.19-3.97) 1.85 (1.52-2.24) 2.67 (2.39-2.99) 1.55 (1.30-1.84)
Lack of cash reserves       
No (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 2.01 (1.88-2.15) 1.34 (1.20-1.51) 2.94 (2.65-3.27) 1.63 (1.34-1.98) 2.01 (1.88-2.32) 1.21 (1.02-1.43)
Low household income       
No (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 1.44 (1.34-1.55) 1.14 (0.99-1.28) 1.89 (1.69-2.12) 1.09 (0.91-1.31) 1.81 (1.62-2.03) 1.18 (0.99-1.39)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age
  2. Model 2 adjusted for age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness and all three economic hardships variables included in the model simultaneously