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Table 2 Age adjusted and multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mental health problems (GHQ12, severe anxiety & use of antidepressant medication) in relation to economic hardship (inability to pay ordinary bills, lack of cash reserves, low household income) Men (the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009).

From: Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

  Psychological distress (GHQ12) Severe anxiety Use of antidepressant medications
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Men
(N = 23,153)
      
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Inability to pay for ordinary bills       
No (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 3.34 (3.06-3.65) 2.05 (1.76-2.38) 4.92 (4.24-5.72) 2.76 (2.10-3.63) 3.07 (2.80-3.63) 1.90 (1.48-2.43)
Lack of cash reserves       
No (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 2.52 (2.31-2.75) 1.38 (1.17-1.62) 4.27 (3.69-4.95) 1.67 (1.26-2.21) 2.85 (2.42-3.34) 1.34 (1.03-1.73)
Low household income       
No (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 1.82 (1.67-2.00) 1.14 (0.98-1.33) 2.70 (2.32-3.15) 1.09 (0.83-1.42) 2.64 (2.25-3.09) 1.51 (1.20-1.91)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age
  2. Model 2 adjusted for age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness and all three economic hardships variables included in the model simultaneously