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Table 4 Division-wise injection safety practices in the UHCs in Bangladesh

From: A comprehensive situation assessment of injection practices in primary health care hospitals in Bangladesh

Indicators Division§       Total
  1 2 3 4 5 6  
A. Facility observation: general safety (n = 24)        
Average no. of injections per patient (number) 0.9 3.8 02.3 02.3 02.31 04.3 2.7
Injection safety policy/guidelines was available for viewing (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Waste disposal policy/guidelines was available for viewing (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Waste handlers have access to 'heavy gloves' (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Facilities with no non-sharps infectious waste outside (%) 23.5 16.3 11.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.6
Used syringe, needle disposed in puncture proof box (%) 55.0* 36.3 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5
Facilities with no loose sharps/needles overflowing (%) 36.5 48.3* 47.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.0
Facilities with no loose injection materials scattered (%) 23.8 40.0* 26.5 0.0 11.2 15 19.4
Facilities with safe final waste disposal methods (%) 31.5 12.5 21.5 10.12 0.0 21.3 16.2
B. Injection providers' safety (n = 120)        
Providers reported needle stick injuries in last 6 months (%) 46.3 32.5 67.5* 0.0 32.5 0.0 29.8
Providers trained in injection safety practices in last 2 years (%) 87.5* 0.0 75.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.1
Providers have had at least one Hepatitis B vaccination 3.6 27.3 13.7 53.4 47.6 0.0 24.3
Immunized against HBV [all 3 doses] (%) 02.5 25.0 12.5 52.5* 45.0 0.0 22.9
C. Safety of the recipients (n = 480)        
Providers washed hands with antiseptic soap/rub (%) 33.5* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 05.6
Patients whose injection site sterilized by spirit (%) 100.0* 0.0 08.8 30.0 20.0 12.5 28.5
Used new syringe- needles for reconstitution (%) 98.0 88.5 80.7 74.5 83.0 82.5 84.5
Injection was prepared on clean table (%) 56.5 0.0 05.0 50.0 80.0* 18.8 35.0
Used syringe, needle disposed immediately after injection 55.0* 36.3 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.5
No used sharps were scattered in open areas 27.8 36.0* 22.5 4.5 11.2 14.7 18.8
Followed adverse events after injection (%) 13.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0* 0.0 07.3
D. Safety of the waste handlers (n = 48)        
Waste handlers used 'heavy gloves' (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Trained in healthcare waste management (%) 50.0* 0.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 10.4
Immunized with HBV vaccine [3 dose] (%) 9.7 6.5 0.0 08.8 0.0 0.0 4.2
Waste handlers used any form of gloves (%) 62.5* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.4
Reported needle stick injury in last 6 months (%) 46.5* 20.5 27.5 16.3 30.6 10.8 25.4
  1. HBV, hepatitis B virus; §1 = Dhaka, 2 = Chittagong, 3 = Rajshahi, 4 = Sylhet, 5 = Barishal, 6 = Khulna.
  2. * p < 0.01