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Table 2 Beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate modelsa looking at factors associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations

From: Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

Variables Lutein/zeaxanthin (nmol/L) ß-cryptoxanthin (nmol/L) Lycopene (nmol/L) α-carotene (nmol/L) ß-carotene (nmol/L)
Age group (yrs)      
   15-24 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   25-34 17.26 (-5.04, 39.55) -3.92 (-26.67, 18.83) -2.11 (-46.96, 42.74) 13.55 (319, 23.92) 42.44 (-1.07, 85.95)
   35-44 -2.64 (-25.73, 20.46) 4.04 (-19.54, 27.63) -64.14 (-110.60, -17.69) 16.61 (5.87, 27.36) 79.39 (34.32, 124.46)
   45-54 23.62 (-1.31, 48.55) 49.15 (23.71, 74.58) -45.19 (-95.33, 4.95) 25.23 (13.65, 36.82) 134.24 (85.59, 182.89)
   55-64 36.62 (4.67, 68.56) 47.02 (14.42, 79.61) -125.88 (-190.13, -61.63) 15.65 (0.80, 30.49) 166.36 (104.02, 228.69)
   65+ 48.33 (5.16, 91.50) 66.47 (22.42, 110.52) -51.74 (-138.57, 35.09) 24.24 (4.19, 44.30) 164.02 (79.78, 248.27)
Sex      
   Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Female 8.26 (-7.48, 23.99) 5.15 (-10.92, 21.23) -33.15 (-64.79, -1.50) 13.18 (5.87, 20.49) 75.80 (45.09, 106.50)
SES quintile      
   1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2 11.59 (-15.86, 39.04) 4.79 (-23.27, 32.86) 20.66 (-34.56, 73.87) 0.35 (-12.41, 13.10) 28.85 (-24.72, 82.41)
   3 30.01 (6.15, 53.87) 1.78 (-22.63, 26.20) 14.82 (-33.17, 62.81) -3.29 (-14.38, 7.80) -6.05 (-52.60, 40.51)
   4 65.51 (37.18, 93.84) 6.87 (-22.12, 35.87) 47.44 (-9.55, 104.43) 7.44 (-5.75, 20.64) 23.95 (-31.35, 79.24)
   5 88.49 (59.51, 117.47) 21.58 (-8.04, 51.20) 105.22 (46.94, 163.51) 17.29 (3.82, 30.75) 86.10 (29.55, 142.65)
p-trend <0.001 0.202 0.001 0.019 0.026
Poor or fair health 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Good or better health 8.75 (-9.33, 26.82) 0.83 (-17.63, 19.29) 6.78 (-29.58, 43.14) 9.24 (0.84, 17.64) 34.64 (-0.63, 69.29)
Normal cholesterol 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Hypercholesterolaemia 40.20 (24.15, 56.25) 19.92 (3.52, 36.31) 91.31 (59.03, 123.59) 12.53 (5.06, 20.00) 76.62 (45.30, 107.94)
No dyslipidaemia 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Dyslipidaemia -14.60 (-30.64, 1.43) -14.12 (-30.48, 2.23) -65.87 (-98.11,-33.62) -13.27 (-20.73, -5.82) -63.38 (-94.67, -32.10)
Glucose tolerance      
   Normal 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Abnormalb -16.59 (-39.16, 5.98) -24.83 (-47.88, -1.77) -44.21 (-89.62, 1.19) -17.98 (-28.48, -7.49) -105.20 (-149.26, -61.15)
   Diabetic 1.28 (-21.09, 23.65) -27.59 (-50.45, -4.73) -74.27 (-119.26, -29.27) -22.63 (-33.03, -12.23) -140.07 (-183.73, 96.41)
Waist to hip ratio      
   Non-obese 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Obese -3.19 (-23.42, 17.04) -11.34 (-31.98, 9.30) -0.28 (-40.97, 40.41) 1.62 (-7.80, 11.04) -2.75 (-42.23, 36.73)
Body mass index      
   Underweight -11.47 (-38.57, 15.63) -6.04 (-33.69, 21.61) 4.84 (-49.67, 59.35) -0.45 (-13.15, 12.25) -7.03 (-59.91, 45.86)
   Normal 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Overweight -0.23(-20.56, 20.10) 5.26 (-15.48, 26.00) 29.20 (-11.69, 70.08) 8.03 (-1.42, 17.47) -12.25 (-51.92, 27.42)
   Obese -23.88 (-45.09, -2.69) -7.34 (-29.00, 14.31) -14.13 (-56.79, 28.53) -4.52 (-14.37, 5.33) -57.15 (-98.31, -15.76)
Non-smoker 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Current smoker -42.53 (-58.39, -26.68) -52.07(-68.26, -35.88) -44.87 (-76.77, -12.97) -17.66 (-25.03, -10.29) -76.79 (-107.74, -45.84)
Non-alcohol consumer 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Alcohol consumer 9.69 (-7.29, 26.66) -4.26 (-21.63, 13.11) 42.14 (7.99, 76.29) 8.17 (0.27, 16.07) 17.44 (-15.69, 50.57)
Adjusted R2 0.15 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.21
  1. a The models included only those variables shown in the table.
  2. b Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose combined.