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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by gender

From: Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

Variable Men n = 280 Women n = 617
Numbers and (proportions)   
Ethnic origin   
   Aboriginal 233 (79.6) 531 (86.1)
   Torres Strait Islander 18 (6.4) 30 (4.9)
   Both 39 (13.9) 56 (9.1)
Current smoker 113 (40.4) 247 (40.0)
Alcohol consumer 198 (70.7) 375 (60.8)
Glucose tolerance   
   Diabetic 42 (15.0) 119 (19.3)
   Abnormal glucose tolerancea 36 (12.9) 83 (13.4)
   Normal glucose tolerance 180 (64.3) 364 (59.0)
   Unclassified 22 (7.9) 51 (8.3)
Hypertension 52 (18.6) 114 (18.5)
Hypercholesterolaemia 117 (41.8) 195 (31.6)
Dyslipidaemiab 141 (50.4) 233 (37.8)
Takeaway 2+/wk 105 (37.5) 153 (24.8)
Snacks 2+/wk 107 (38.2) 228 (37.0)
4+ veg serves/dayc 25 (8.9) 56 (9.1)
2+ fruit serves/d 88 (31.4) 219 (35.5)
1+ Fruit/veg juice serves/d 41 (14.6) 98 (15.9)
Sufficient fruit & vegd 17 (6.1) 41 (6.6)
Household equivalised income e ($/week)   
   1-199 62 (22.1) 134 (21.7)
   200-499 77 (27.5) 171 (27.7)
   500 65 (23.2) 133 (21.6)
   Missing 76 (27.1) 179 (29.0)
In full time work 111 (36.6) 243 (39.4)
Post school qualification 82 (29.3) 189 (30.6)
Home is owned or being purchased 105 (37.5) 236 (38.2)
5+ in household 73 (26.1) 194 (31.4)
Manage OK on income 146 (52.1) 284 (46.0)
Rate health as good or excellent 194 (69.3) 422 (68.4)
Medians (25 th -75 th %iles)   
Age (yrs) 35 (22-46) 37 (25-48)
Waist circumference (cm) 95 (85-105) 93 (81-104)
Waist to hip ratio 0.94 (0.89-1.00) 0.87 (0.81-0.93)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.0 (23.5-30.9) 27.8 (23.5-32.9)
  1. a Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose combined.
  2. b Triglycerides ≥ 1.7 or HDL <0.9 (male), <1.0 (female)
  3. c The response categories for vegetable frequency mean we cannot look at 5+ serves per day as per current recommendations.
  4. d Defined as at least four veg and two fruit/day see point b above.
  5. e "OECD-modified scale". After having used the "old OECD scale" in the 1980s and the earlier 1990s, the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT) adopted in the late 1990s the so-called "OECD-modified equivalence scale". This scale, first proposed by Haagenars et al. (1994), assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child.