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Table 4 Adverse family psychosocial characteristics, individual problems, and mortality among males.

From: Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality - possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort

  Mortality (1981-2009)
  Crudea
(95% CI)
Model 1b
(95% CI)
Model 2c
(95% CI)
Model 3d
(95% CI)
Model 4e
(95% CI)
Model 5f
(95% CI)
Model 6g
(95% CI)
Model 7h
(95% CI)
Model 8i
(95% CI)
PAF
Family psychosocial characteristics           
Father's criminality (1953-1959)           
No (ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 1.46 (0.92-2.30) 1.10 (0.68-1.78) 1.05 (0.65-1.69) 0.97 (0.60-1.57) 0.97 (0.59-1.57) 0.90 (0.55-1.48) 1.03 (0.64-1.68) 0.88 (0.54-1.44) 0.89 (0.54-1.46)  
Father's alcohol abuse (1953-1965)           
No (ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 3.00 (2.08-4.31) 2.87 (1.94-4.24) 2.53 (1.70-3.76) 2.16 (1.45-3.22) 2.05 (1.36-3.07) 2.11 (1.40-3.19) 2.31 (1.54-3.46) 1.92 (1.27-2.90) 1.88 (1.24-2.86) -0.69%
Parents' mental problems (1953-1965)           
No (ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 1.43 (0.97-2.10) 1.10 (0.73-1.66) 1.02 (0.68-1.54) 0.93 (0.62-1.40) 0.95 (0.62-1.43) 0.93 (0.61-1.41) 0.89 (0.58-1.35) 0.86 (0.56-1.30) 0.88 (0.58-1.35)  
Father's occupational class (1963)           
Upper and upper middle class (ref.) 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Middle class 1.35 (0.98-1.86)   1.33 (0.97-1.84) 1.21 (0.88-1.68) 1.27 (0.92-1.75) 1.25 (0.91-1.73) 1.31 (0.95-1.81) 1.18 (0.85-1.63) 1.23 (0.89-1.70)  
Working class 1.72 (1.26-2.36)   1.62 (1.18-2.22) 1.34 (0.97-1.85) 1.44 (1.04-1.99) 1.38 (1.00-1.90) 1.56 (1.14-2.15) 1.23 (0.89-1.71) 1.32 (0.95-1.82)  
Others 2.93 (1.77-4.83)   1.39 (1.42-4.00) 1.93 (1.14-3.25) 2.09 (1.24-3.54) 2.24 (1.32-3.79) 2.30 (1.37-3.87) 1.96 (0.16-3.31) 2.09 (1.23-3.55) -0.50%
Individual problems           
All crimes (1966-1980)           
No (ref.) 1.00    1.00     1.00   
Yes 2.96 (2.43-3.59)    2.75 (2.26-3.36)     2.12 (1.71-2.62)   -8.49%
Violent crimes (1966-1980)           
No (ref.) 1.00     1.00     1.00  
Yes 3.71 (2.89-4.77)     3.24 (2.50-4.20)     2.00 (1.49-2.67) -1.80%
Alcohol and/or drug use (1966-1972)           
No (ref.) 1.00      1.00   1.00 1.00  
Yes 6.83 (5.24-8.90)      6.21 (4.72-8.15)   3.94 (2.88-5.39) 4.43 (3.22-6.11) -2.03%
Mental problems (1966-1972)           
No (ref.) 1.00       1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 4.77 (3.23-7.03)       4.10 (2.74-6.12) 1.34 (0.85-2.10) 1.36 (0.86-2.16) -0.19%
  1. Odds ratios from logistic regression analysis (n = 7,305).
  2. a No adjustment, b Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics, c Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class, d Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + all crimes, e Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + violent crimes
  3. f Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + alcohol and/or drug use, g Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + mental problems, h Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + all crimes + alcohol and/or drug use + mental problems
  4. i Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + violent crimes + alcohol and/or drug use + mental problems