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Table 2 Characteristics and laboratory results in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in different BMI classes

From: Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity phenotypes in the general population: the FIN-D2D Survey

  No MetS MetS  
  BMI < 25
(n = 712)
BMI 25-29.9
(n = 418)
BMI ≥ 30
(n = 94)
P
trend
BMI < 25
(n = 205)
BMI 25-29.9
(n = 811)
BMI ≥ 30
(n = 609)
P
trend
P for MetS/BMI
Interaction
Glucose metabolism          
2-hour plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.0 ± 2.1 6.3 ± 1.8 6.5 ± 2.1 0.013 7.1 ± 2.5 7.6 ± 2.7 8.6 ± 3.4 < 0.001 < 0.001
fP-insulin (mU/l) 5.1 ± 4.4 6.0 ± 2.5 8.5 ± 4.2 < 0.001 6.7 ± 4.1 9.8 ± 22.0 14.7 ± 22.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 1.4 ± 2.5 1.6 ± 0.76 2.3 ± 2.4 0.001 1.8 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 15 4.7 ± 8.7 < 0.001 < 0.001
FINDRISK diabetes risk score (points) 6.6 ± 3.4 9.8 ± 3.4 13 ± 3.1 < 0.001 10.2 ± 4.0 12.5 ± 3.9 16 ± 4.1 < 0.001 0.518
Total T2DM, % 5.1 3.8 4.3 0.490 14.4 21.3 37.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Previously diagnosed T2DM, % 1.7 0.7 0 0.064 6.4 6.9 15.5 < 0.001 0.002
T2DM, undetected prior survey, % 3.4 3.1 4.3 0.800 7.9 14.4 21.5 < 0.001 0.075
CVD risk          
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 0.86 5.5 ± 0.90 5.6 ± 0.98 0.001 5.6 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.1 0.019 < 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.3 ± 0.76 3.5 ± 0.80 3.6 ± 0.87 < 0.001 3.5 ± 0.89 3.3 ± 0.89 3.3 ± 0.96 0.001 < 0.001
Apolipoprotein A1 (g/l) 1.7 ± 0.26 1.6 ± 0.24 1.6 ± 0.19 < 0.001 1.6 ± 0.30 1.5 ± 0.26 1.5 ± 0.23 < 0.001 0.985
Apolipoprotein B (g/l) 0.90 ± 0.19 0.97 ± 0.19 0.98 ± 0.19 < 0.001 1.0 ± 0.23 1.0 ± 0.23 1.0 ± 0.24 < 0.001 < 0.001
hsCRP (mg/l) 1.3 ± 3.8 2.5 ± 8.0 3.1 ± 4.6 < 0.001 3.8 ± 16 2.5 ± 5.0 4.4 ± 8.5 0.118 0.713
Framingham 10 yr CVD (%) 11.9 ± 11.1 11.3 ± 8.4 10.4 ± 8.6 0.067 18.7 ± 13.9 22.8 ± 15 25.1 ± 17.2 < 0.001 < 0.001
SCORE 10 yr fatal CVD (%) 4.5 ± 6.1 3.9 ± 4.3 3.6 ± 4.8 0.002 5.8 ± 5.9 7.2 ± 6.5 6.4 ± 5.8 0.560 0.074
Liver          
Serum ALT (U/l) 21.1 ± 12.8 24.4 ± 10.6 24.6 ± 12.5 < 0.001 24.7 ± 15.4 28.1 ± 15.6 32.9 ± 24.9 < 0.001 0.033
Serum AST(U/l) 24.3 ± 12.4 24.4 ± 7.4 25.6 ± 9.4 0.145 26.1 ± 13.0 26.8 ± 10.7 39.6 ± 17.7 < 0.001 0.045
Serum γGT (U/l) 26.9 ± 27.8 32.0 ± 28.1 33.0 ± 31.8 0.001 40.9 ± 117.5 40.5 ± 45.7 49.5 ± 66.6 0.065 0.636
Alcohol (g/d) 8.2 ± 13 7.6 ± 12 5.8 ± 11 0.168 8.6 ± 24 8.6 ± 14 8.0 ± 13 0.860 0.522
NAFLD score -2.0 ± 0.96 -1.9 ± 0.57 -1.5 ± 0.84 < 0.001 -0.45 ± 1.0 0.021 ± 3.5 0.97 ± 3.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
Estimated liver fat (%) 2.1 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 0.69 2.7 ± 1.0 < 0.001 4.9 ± 2.2 5.6 ± 3.4 7.8 ± 5.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
Lifestyle          
Not eating fruits/vegetables daily, % 18.3 20.0 18.1 0.535 20.2 23.9 19.8 0.548 0.404
Active leisure time physical activity, % 30.9 27.6 14.1 0.002 20.6 19.3 12.1 < 0.001 0.836
Weight change during past year (kg) -0.31 ± 0.46 0.43 ± 3.8 0.56 ± 6.9 0.015 0.2 ± 0.40 -0.03 -0.16 ± 5.7 0.588 0.108
Hours slept per night (hours) 7.2 ± 0.99 7.3 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 1.1 0.453 7.4 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1.2 0.795 0.449
Currently smoking, % 18.5 12.8 8.6 0.002 16.3 16.7 10.1 0.002 0.470
  1. ALT: alanine aminotransferase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; Framingham 10 yr CVD, Framingham 10-year risk score for fatal coronary events; HDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; NAFLD: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; SCORE 10 yr fatal CVD, SCORE risk score 10-year risk score for fatal coronary events T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; γGT: gamma glutamyltransferase. P values adjusted for age and sex.