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Table 3 Logistic regression analyses* of self-reported reading and writing difficulties (RWD) in adolescence (age 12-20) and reception of all social benefits at age 24-28.

From: Reading and writing difficulties in adolescence and later risk of welfare dependence. A ten year follow-up, the HUNT Study, Norway

   Model 1a Model 2b
  n 5-year risk
(95% CI)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
5-year risk
(95% CI)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Girls not reporting RWD 3, 699 0.20
(0.18, 0.22)
1 (ref) 0.19
(0.17, 0.21)
1 (ref)
Girls reporting RWD 233 0.35
(0.28, 0.42)
2.10
(1.53, 2.88)
0.33
(0.26, 0.40)
2.09
(1.52, 2.88)
Boys not reporting RWD 3, 486 0.16
(0.15, 0.18)
1 (ref) 0.16
(0.15, 0.18)
1 (ref)
Boys reporting RWD 399 0.23
(0.19, 0.29)
1.56
(1.18, 2.06)
0.23
(0.18, 0.28)
1.53
(1.15, 2.03)
  1. *Results are reported as predicted 5-year risks and odds ratios. All analyses are performed on complete case data (n = 7, 817) and include RWD-status and gender interaction.
  2. aAdjusted for age, follow-up time, living situation, maternal education and somatic health. bAdjusted for age, follow-up time, living situation, maternal education, somatic health and mental health issues