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Table 2 Logistic regression analyses* of self-reported reading and writing difficulties (RWD) in adolescence (age 12-20) and reception of medical benefits at age 24-28.

From: Reading and writing difficulties in adolescence and later risk of welfare dependence. A ten year follow-up, the HUNT Study, Norway

   Model 1a Model 2b
  n 5-year risk
(95% CI)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
5-year risk
(95% CI)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Girls not reporting RWD 3, 699 0.11
(0.10, 0.13)
1 (ref) 0.11
(0.09, 0.12)
1 (ref)
Girls reporting RWD 233 0.21
(0.16, 0.28)
2.10
(1.46, 3.02)
0.20
(0.14, 0.26)
2.08
(1.44, 3.00)
Boys not reporting RWD 3, 486 0.08
(0.07, 0.09)
1 (ref) 0.08
(0.07, 0.09)
1 (ref)
Boys reporting RWD 399 0.13
(0.10, 0.17)
1.69
(1.20, 2.39)
0.13
(0.09, 0.17)
1.66
(1.17, 2.34)
  1. *Results are reported as predicted 5-year risks and odds ratios. All analyses are performed on complete case data (n = 7, 817) and include RWD-status and gender interaction.
  2. aAdjusted for age, follow-up time, living situation, maternal education and somatic health.
  3. bAdjusted for age, follow-up time, living situation, maternal education, somatic health and mental health issues