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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to self-reported reading and writing difficulties (RWD), percentages, means and standard deviations.

From: Reading and writing difficulties in adolescence and later risk of welfare dependence. A ten year follow-up, the HUNT Study, Norway

Participant characteristics RWD group
(n= 725)
Non-RWD group
(n= 7, 773)
Baseline 1995-1997
Male sex (%) 63.0 48.8
Middle school attendees (%) 70.2 50.7
Drunk more than 10 times (%) 18.9 31.0
Living situation (%)   
   Living with both parents 71.5 71.3
   Living with one parent and new partner 5.3 7.0
   Living with only mother or father 11.2 10.3
   Living with other adults 5.7 3.7
   Living alone 5.0 5.7
   Living with a partner 1.4 2.0
Mother's educational level (%)   
   Primary 17.9 13.7
   Secondary 67.1 64.5
   Tertiary 15.1 21.8
Father's educational level (%)   
   Primary 21.9 14.9
   Secondary 64.6 62.7
   Tertiary 13.5 22.5
Having a sibling in cohort (%) 33.7 35.5
Complete cases (%) 87.2 92.4
Age - years 15.39 (1.79) 16.09 (1.79)
Somatic health - propensity score 0.10 (0.04) 0.09 (0.02)
Symptom index 0.22 (0.15) 0.22 (0.15)
Anxiety and depression - index 0.14 (0.17) 0.15 (0.16)
Conduct and attention problems - index 0.21 (0.14) 0.19 (0.12)
Status 2007
Age - years 26.35 (1.77) 27.05 (1.85)
Follow-up time age 24-28 - years 3.13 (1.39) 3.66 (1.37)
Secondary education   
   Not completed age 24 (%) 33.7 16.7
Received long-term medical benefits   
   At end of follow-up (%) 18.8 11.3
   At age 24-28 (%) 15.0 8.9
No secondary education age 24 (%) 57.8 35.5
Received any long-term social benefits   
   At end of follow-up (%) 35.0 22.8
   At age 24-28 (%) 22.8 15.6
No secondary education age 24 (%) 59.4 26.1