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Table 5 Unstandardized (b) and standardized (β) regression coefficients from the multivariable linear regression models predicting cognitive function at the last follow-up interview

From: A prospective cohort study of long-term cognitive changes in older Medicare beneficiaries

Independent Variables TICS-7 at Follow-Up
(N= 3,002)
Immediate Word Recall at Follow-Up
(N= 4,211)
Delayed Word Recall at Follow-Up
(N= 4,033)
  b β b β b β
Baseline Cognition       
Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-7; 0-15 correct) 0.36*** 0.33     
Immediate Word Recall (0-10 correct)    0.34*** 0.34   
Delayed Word Recall (0-10 correct)      0.29*** 0.32
Exposure and Censoring       
Years Between Interviews -0.07*** -0.13 -0.05*** -0.11 -0.05*** -0.11
Years Between Interviews Squared 0.01* 0.05 0.01*** 0.09 0.01*** 0.08
Entered Managed Care After Baseline 0.42*** 0.07 0.46*** 0.09 0.50*** 0.09
Survived to the End of the Studya 0.67*** 0.14 0.33*** 0.08 0.45*** 0.10
Died ≤ 1 Year After the Last Interviewa 0.22* 0.04 0.15* 0.03 0.10 0.02
Demographic and Socioeconomic       
Age -0.05*** -0.11 -0.06*** -0.16 -0.06*** -0.16
Men 0.17* 0.04 -0.12 -0.03 -0.17* -0.04
African Americanb -0.71*** -0.07 -0.20* -0.03 -0.44*** -0.06
Hispanic Americanb -0.57* -0.04 -0.20 -0.02 -0.12 -0.01
Widowedc -0.08 -0.02 -0.01 -0.00 -0.03 -0.01
Divorced or Separatedc 0.10 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.29* 0.03
Never Marriedc 0.30 0.03 0.21 0.02 -0.02 -0.00
Grade School Onlyd -0.43*** -0.07 -0.26*** -0.06 -0.17* -0.03
Attended Colleged 0.20** 0.04 0.27*** 0.07 0.25*** 0.06
Lowest Income Quintilee -0.21 -0.03 -0.03 -0.01 -0.12 -0.02
Highest Income Quintilee 0.17 0.04 -0.02 -0.00 0.02 0.01
Disease History and Comorbidity       
Acute Myocardial Infarction 0.11 0.01 0.12 0.02 0.07 0.01
Angina -0.14 -0.02 0.04 0.01 -0.06 -0.01
Arthritis -0.28** -0.06 -0.06 -0.02 0.07 0.02
Cancer 0.04 0.01 0.11 0.02 0.15 0.03
Diabetes -0.08 -0.01 -0.15 -0.03 -0.21* -0.03
Hip Fracture -0.10 -0.01 -0.01 -0.00 0.25 0.03
Hypertension 0.10 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.07 0.02
Lung Conditions 0.07 0.01 0.06 0.01 -0.02 -0.00
Psychological Conditions -0.21 -0.02 -0.21 -0.03 -0.05 -0.01
Stroke -0.13 -0.02 -0.14 -0.02 -0.30* -0.04
Comorbidity (≥ 3 of the above diseases) 0.24 0.04 0.19* 0.04 0.26* 0.05
Health Lifetyles       
Obesef 0.16 0.03 0.08 0.02 -0.01 -0.00
Underweightf 0.02 0.00 0.09 0.01 -0.05 -0.00
Engages in Vigorous Activity (≥ 3 times per week) -0.08 -0.02 0.04 0.01 -0.01 -0.00
Current Cigarette Smokerg -0.02 -0.00 -0.15 -0.02 -0.13 -0.02
Former Cigarette Smokerg 0.11 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01
≥ 1 Alcoholic Drink Daily 0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.00 -0.02 -0.00
Functional Status       
Activities of Daily Living Limitations -0.06 -0.02 -0.06 -0.02 -0.03 -0.01
Instrumental ADL Limitations -0.07 0.02 -0.11* -0.04 -0.08 -0.02
Mobility Limitations 0.08* -0.05 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.00
Good Vision -0.01 -0.00 -0.07 0.02 -0.01 -0.00
Good Hearing -0.14 -0.03 0.13* 0.03 -0.02 -0.00
Depressive Symptoms -0.03 -0.02 -0.04* -0.04 -0.02 -0.02
Continuity of Care       
Every Day After Baselineh 0.17 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.09 0.01
Never After Baselineh -0.22 -0.05 -0.03 -0.01 0.03 0.01
Post-Baseline Health Shocks       
Quartile 1 of Annual Primary Care Visitsi 0.43** 0.09 0.01 0.00 0.12 0.03
Quartile 2 of Annual Primary Care Visitsi 0.38*** 0.08 0.01 0.00 0.16 0.04
Quartile 3 of Annual Primary Care Visitsi 0.13 0.03 -0.01 -0.00 0.10 0.02
Quartile 1 of Annual Hospital Episodesj 0.09 0.02 0.16* 0.04 0.08 0.02
Quartile 2 of Annual Hospital Episodesj 0.01 0.00 -0.01 -0.00 -0.07 -0.02
Quartile 3 of Annual Hospital Episodesj 0.28** 0.06 -0.04 -0.00 -0.07 -0.02
Intercept 10.97***   6.30***   5.89***  
R2 0.24***   0.28***   0.25***  
  1. * = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.01; *** = p < 0.001
  2. aReference category is died > 1 year after the last follow-up interview.
  3. bReference category is White.
  4. cReference category is married.
  5. dReference category is high school.
  6. eReference category is the three middle quintiles.
  7. fReference category is normal or overweight.
  8. gReference category is never having smoked cigarettes.
  9. hReference category is continuity of care for 1-99%.
  10. iReference category is top quartile of primary care visits.
  11. jReference category is top quartile of annual hospital episodes.