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Table 1 Crude and adjusted associations between parental alcohol use and four dimensions of school adjustment

From: Parental alcohol use and adolescent school adjustment in the general population: Results from the HUNT study

   Attention Academic Conduct Dissatisfaction
  N d 95% C.I. d 95% C.I. d 95% C.I. d 95% C.I.
Crude associations              
   Maternal alcohol    ***    ***    ***     
   Abuse 134 0.35 ** 0.13 - 0.56 0.03   -0.15 - 0.21 0.32 ** 0.11 - 0.53 0.05   -0.14 - 0.24
   At risk 768 0.15 *** 0.07 - 0.23 0.02   -0.06 - 0.10 0.10 * 0.02 - 0.16 -0.02   -0.09 - 0.06
   Abstainer 491 -0.11 * -0.20 - -0.02 -0.12 * -0.22 - -0.03 -0.19 *** -0.28 - -0.11 -0.01   -0.11 - 0.09
   Missing response 2818 0.09 *** 0.04 - 0.14 0.12 *** 0.07 - 0.17 0.04 - 0.00 - 0.09 0.03   -0.02 - 0.08
   Light drinking 4580 0    0    0    0   
   Paternal alcohol    ***    ***    ***    **  
   Abuse 215 0.23 ** 0.08 - 0.38 0.02   -0.13 - 0.17 0.24 ** 0.08 - 0.40 0.08   -0.07 - 0.22
   At risk 799 0.13 ** 0.05 - 0.20 0.02   -0.06 - 0.10 0.14 *** 0.06 - 0.21 0.04   -0.04 - 0.12
   Abstainer 281 -0.08   -0.19 - 0.04 -0.23 *** -0.36 - -0.10 -0.07   -0.18 - 0.04 -0.08   -0.21 - 0.05
   Missing response 4000 0.14 *** 0.10 - 0.19 0.13 *** 0.08 - 0.17 0.14 *** 0.09 - 0.18 0.08 ** 0.03 - 0.12
   Light drinking 3496 0    0    0    0   
Adjusted for other parent's alcohol use and for demography
   Maternal alcohol    ***    **    ***     
   Abuse 134 0.27 * 0.06 - 0.49 0.06   -0.11 - 0.24 0.27 ** 0.07 - 0.48 0.04   -0.15 - 0.23
   At risk 768 0.09 * 0.01 - 0.17 0.06   -0.02 - 0.14 0.08   0.00 - 0.16 -0.02   -0.09 - 0.06
   Abstainer 491 -0.12 * -0.22 - -0.02 -0.07   -0.18 - 0.04 -0.18 *** -0.28 - -0.08 0.02   -0.09 - 0.12
   Missing response 2818 0.03   -0.02 - 0.08 0.05   0.00 - 0.10 -0.01   -0.06 - 0.04 -0.01   -0.06 - 0.04
   Light drinking 4580 0    0    0    0   
   Paternal alcohol    ***       ***     
   Abuse 215 0.21 ** 0.05 - 0.36 0.06   -0.09 - 0.20 0.18 * 0.01 - 0.34 0.10   -0.05 - 0.24
   At risk 799 0.11 ** 0.03 - 0.18 0.03   -0.05 - 0.11 0.11 ** 0.03 - 0.19 0.05   -0.03 - 0.12
   Abstainer 281 -0.04   -0.16 - 0.08 -0.17 * -0.31 - -0.04 0.06   -0.06 - 0.19 -0.09   -0.24 - 0.05
   Missing response 4000 0.09 *** 0.04 - 0.14 0.06 * 0.01 - 0.11 0.11 *** 0.06 - 0.16 0.05   -0.01 - 0.10
   Light drinking 3496 0    0    0    0   
  1. Demography includes adolescent age and sex, parental age, education and income.
  2. Cohen's d express group differences as fractions of standard deviations.
  3. * = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.01; *** = p < 0.001.