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Table 4 Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of each health behaviour for those granted DP due to MSD and DP in general

From: Stability and change in health behaviours as predictors for disability pension: a prospective cohort study of Swedish twins

  DP due to MSD DP in general
  Whole sample Discordant pairs Whole sample Discordant pairs
Health behaviour HR* 95%CI HR# 95%CI HR* 95%CI HR# 95%CI
Leisure-time physical activity         
   Stable frequent exercisers (reference group) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Stable sedentary 1.09 0.88, 1.34 0.63 0.44, 0.91 1.13 0.99, 1.29 0.84 0.68, 1.04
   Decreased the frequency of exercise 1.16 0.94, 1.43 0.99 0.69, 1.42 1.17 1.03, 1.34 1.13 0.92, 1.38
   Increased the frequency of exercise 0.98 0.76, 1.25 0.64 0.43, 0.94 0.94 0.80, 1.10 0.84 0.66, 1.08
BMI         
   Stable (reference group) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Decreased 0.54 0.20, 1.45 1.34 0.31, 5.91 1.58 1.07, 2.32 1.30 0.63, 2.67
   Increased 1.21 1.03, 1.41 0.96 0.73, 1.27 1.10 0.99, 1.21 1.12 0.95, 1.32
Pain locations         
   Never any pain (reference group) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Stable number of pain locations 3.54 2.45, 5.13 2.65 1.29, 5.44 2.04 1.60, 2.59 1.46 1.01, 2.10
   Decrease of pain locations 2.32 1.50, 3.57 2.98 2.09, 4.27 1.72 1.33, 2.21 1.07 0.71, 1.60
   Increase of pain locations 3.69 2.99, 4.56 1.51 0.74, 3.08 2.15 1.92, 2.42 1.61 1.36, 1.90
Change in use of tobacco products         
   Stable never user (reference group) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Changed the use (either increased or decreased) 1.16 0.89, 1.52 1.20 0.77, 1.86 1.04 0.88, 1.23 0.89 0.69, 1.14
   Stable tobacco user 1.48 1.17, 1.85 1.23 0.75, 2.02 1.41 1.22, 1.62 1.19 0.89, 1.59
Alcohol consumption         
   Abstainer (reference group) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Sometimes or regularly 1.24 0.83, 1.86 0.49 0.20, 1.20 1.34 1.02, 1.78 0.80 0.50, 1.27
  1. * All HR's are adjusted for zygosity, birth year, years of education, marital status, and number and severity of diseases. Sex was stratified allowing men and women their own baseline hazard
  2. # Conditional Cox proportional hazard