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Table 2 Frequencies (percentages) of background factors and of health behaviours in the cohort specified for those later granted DP due to MSD, DP in general, and had no DP during follow up

From: Stability and change in health behaviours as predictors for disability pension: a prospective cohort study of Swedish twins

  DP due to MSD DP in general No DP
  Men Women Men Women Men Women
  MZ DZ MZ DZ MZ DZ MZ DZ MZ DZ MZ DZ
Background factors n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Employment at 1970             
   ≥ 35 hours 87 (84) 114 (79) 79 (41) 111 (36) 204 (77) 296 (75) 181 (38) 262 (37) 1646 (56) 2563 (57) 1062 (34) 1448 (33)
   20-34 hours 1 (1) - 17 (9) 37 (12) 3 (1) - 40 (8) 61 (9) 23 (1) 26 (1) 172 (6) 267 (6)
   1-19 hours - - 3 (2) 11 (4) 2 (1) 1 (0) 17 (4) 25 (4) 18 (1) 12 (0) 97 (3) 129 (3)
   Student 13 (13) 22 (15) 33 (17) 53 (17) 38 (14) 72 (18) 115 (24) 147 (21) 1060 (36) 1664 (37) 1136 (37) 1506 (35)
   Conscript in army 2 (2) 5 (3) - - 7 (3) 12 (3) - - 121 (4) 158 (4) - -
   Other (not in paid work) - 2 (1) 59 (31) 91 (30) 5 (2) 5 (1) 123 (26) 198 (28) 10 (0) 24 (1) 605 (20) 966 (22)
   Missing data - 2 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0) 4 (2) 8 (2) 3 (1) 10 (1) 35 (1) 49 (1) 22 (1) 30 (1)
Marital status             
Married or living with
someone
90 (87) 120 (83) 145 (75) 232 (76) 213 (80) 306 (78) 339 (71) 510 (72) 2366 (81) 3696 (82) 2379 (77) 3366 (77)
   Single, separated, widowed 14 (14) 25 (17) 48 (25) 73 (24) 52 (20) 88 (22) 140 (29) 193 (23) 551 (19) 803 (18) 723 (23) 981 (23)
Number and severity of diseases             
- None 1 (1) 2 (1) 1 (1) 1 (0) 2 (1) 12 (3) 1 (0) 1 (0) 162 (6) 247 (6) 105 (3) 160 (4)
- One or more not life-threatening 42 (40) 47 (32) 38 (20) 86 (28) 69 (26) 96 (24) 85 (18) 169 (24) 966 (33) 1637 (36) 999 (32) 1471 (34)
One or more somewhat life-threatening 2 (2) 2 (1) 1 (1) 5 (2) 4 (2) 13 (3) 6 (1) 11 (2) 127 (4) 218 (5) 109 (4) 137 (3)
One or more not and somewhat life-threatening 57 (55) 92 (63) 135 (70) 192 (63) 180 (68) 261 (66) 336 (70) 458 (65) 1562 (54) 2278 (51) 1657 (53) 2291 (53)
One or more very life-threatening - - - - - - 1 (0) - 6 (0) 3 (0) 14 (1) 15 (0)
Two or more not and very life-threatening - - 2 (1) 7 (2) 1 (0) 2 (1) 7 (2) 12 (2) 26 (1) 33 (1) 63 (2) 101 (2)
Two or more somewhat and very life-threatening - - - 1 (0) - - 1 (0) 3 (0) 3 (0) 8 (0) 9 (0) 8 (0)
Three or more not, somewhat and very life-threatening 2 (2) 2 (1) 16 (8) 13 (4) 9 (3) 11 (3) 42 (9) 49 (7) 65 (2) 73 (2) 145 (5) 164 (4)
Health behaviour             
Leisure-time physical activity             
   Stable frequent exerciser 27 (26) 32 (22) 41 (21) 87 (29) 60 (23) 92 (23) 129 (27) 182 (26) 745 (26) 1162 (26) 1006 (32) 1334 (31)
   Stable sedentary 19 (18) 34 (23) 51 (26) 70 (23) 51 (19) 93 (24) 112 (23) 181 (26) 598 (21) 857 (19) 646 (21) 955 (22)
Decreased the frequency of exercise 28 (27) 35 (24) 48 (25) 64 (21) 75 (28) 106 (27) 112 (23) 152 (22) 754 (26) 1243 (28) 643 (21) 927 (21)
Increased the frequency of exercise 8 (8) 13 (9) 25 (13) 46 (15) 22 (8) 27 (7) 63 (13) 96 (14) 244 (8) 395 (9) 476 (15) 683 (16)
BMI             
   Stable 43 (41) 51 (35) 85 (44) 124 (41) 106 (40) 146 (37) 226 (47) 292 (42) 1139 (39) 1893 (42) 1462 (47) 2126 (49)
   Decreased - 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 (1) 4 (2) 6 (2) 5 (1) 12 (2) 21 (1) 39 (1) 19 (1) 49 (1)
   Increased 46 (44) 72 (50) 78 (40) 137 (45) 113 (43) 185 (47) 188 (39) 300 (43) 1388 (48) 2016 (45) 1324 (43) 1692 (39)
Pain locations             
   Never any pain 16 (15) 16 (11) 23 (12) 53 (17) 50 (20) 92 (23) 105 (22) 153 (22) 1136 (39) 1666 (37) 1291 (42) 1818 (42)
   Stable number of pain locations 6 (6) 11 (8) 10 (5) 12 (4) 23 (9) 23 (6) 16 (3) 22 (3) 120 (4) 206 (5) 85 (3) 129 (3)
   Decrease of pain locations 3 (3) 6 (4) 6 (3) 10 (3) 12 (5) 20 (5) 9 (2) 27 (4) 105 (4) 188 (4) 89 (3) 153 (4)
   Increase of pain locations 66 (64) 88 (61) 127 (66) 196 (64) 142 (54) 196 (50) 291 (61) 409 (58) 1197 (41) 1884 (42) 1373 (44) 1828 (42)
Change of use of tobacco products             
   Stable never user 9 (9) 9 (6) 26 (14) 50 (16) 24 (9) 35 (9) 76 (16) 109 (16) 367 (13) 441 (10) 677 (22) 880 (20)
Changed the use (increased
or decreased)
19 (18) 21 (15) 40 (21) 56 (18) 41 (16) 69 (18) 91 (19) 131 (19) 795 (27) 1181 (26) 858 (28) 1057 (24)
   Stable tobacco user 58 (56) 88 (61) 89 (46) 150 (49) 155 (59) 224 (57) 238 (50) 346 (49) 1390 (48) 2295 (51) 1245 (40) 1904 (44)
Alcohol consumption             
   Abstainer 5 (5) 2 (1) 6 (3) 12 (4) 6 (2) 5 (1) 15 (3) 25 (4) 63 (2) 90 (2) 102 (3) 188 (4)
   Sometimes or regularly 99 (95) 143 (99) 187 (97) 293 (96) 259 (98) 390 (99) 464 (97) 678 (96) 2854 (98) 4409 (98) 2999 (97) 4160 (96)