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Table 1 Adjusted differences in mean, summed stigma scores for participant characteristics

From: Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members

   Patients with TB Community members
   Perceived TB stigma Experienced/felt TB stigma Community TB stigma
   Crude* MD† (95% CI) Crude* MD† (95% CI) Crude* MD† (95% CI)
Age Age (per 10 year) 18.12 0.61 (0.29, 0.92) 19.72 0.17 (-0.12, 0.45) 19.96 0.66 (0.22, 1.11)
Gender Male 18.51 0.0   20.16 0.0   19.88 0.0  
  Female 18.28 0.16 (-0.79, 1.11) 19.28 -0.80 (-1.67, 0.07) 20.37 0.30 (-0.80, 1.39)
Religion Buddhist 18.88 0.0   19.84 0.0   20.02 0.0  
  Muslim 17.51 -1.37 (-2.32, -0.42) 19.87 0.04 (-0.83, 0.90) 20.59 0.56 (-0.85, 1.98)
  Completed secondary 18.44 0.0   19.16 0.0   19.71 0.0  
Education Completed primary 17.89 -0.41 (-1.53, 0.72) 19.78 0.54 (-0.46, 1.55) 19.95 0.21 (-1.03, 1.46)
  Some or no primary 19.08 0.78 (-0.39, 1.96) 20.52 1.22 (0.17, 2.28) 21.38 1.61 (0.14, 3.08)
Income Baht/month (1,000 baht) 18.38 0.00 (-0.04, 0.03) 19.39 -0.02 (-0.05, 0.02) 19.39 -0.01 (-0.06, 0.04)
  Infection from others 18.96 0.0   19.77 0.0   19.81 0.0  
  Eat/drink with patient 17.58 -1.46 (-3.87, 0.95) 19.20 -0.62 (-2.76, 1.52) 20.42 1.13 (-0.86, 3.11)
TB Knowledge Smoking/drinking 18.62 -0.66 (-1.97, 0.65) 20.49 0.42 (-0.77, 1.62) 20.09 0.03 (-1.57, 1.63)
(Cause) Work hard 17.91 -1.57 (-3.15, 0.01) 19.97 -0.17 (-1.61, 1.28) 24.00   Too few
  Heredity 17.79 -0.98 (-3.40, 1.44) 18.65 -1.23 (-3.37, 0.92) 19.44 -1.44 (-3.78, 0.91)
  Weak body 18.80 -0.30 (-1.78, 1.17) 19.44 -0.36 (-1.71, 0.99) 20.04 0.43 (-1.84, 2.69)
  Not cough or sneeze/don't know 18.43 0.0   19.67 0.0   20.25 0.0  
  Cough/sneeze 18.43 0.08 (-1.09, 1.25) 19.89 0.40 (-0.67, 1.47) 20.09 -0.28 (-1.51, 0.95)
  Not eat or drink/don't know 18.15 0.0   19.61 0.0   19.41 0.0  
TB Knowledge Eat/drink 18.61 0.52 (-0.39, 1.43) 20.01 0.44 (-0.39, 1.26) 21.39 1.73 (0.62, 2.84)
(Transmission) Not touch/don't know 18.43 0.0   19.74 0.0   20.12 0.0  
  Touch 18.49 -0.14 (-1.73, 1.45) 21.00 1.21 (-0.22, 2.64) 20.22 -0.33 (-2.17, 1.51)
  Not set/don't know 18.33 0.0   19.75 0.0   20.05 0.0  
  Sex 19.35 1.06 (-0.44, 2.55) 20.84 0.92 (-0.46, 2.30) 21.63 1.94 (-0.47, 4.34)
TB Knowledge Not curable 19.63 0.0   20.67 0.0   20.65 0.0  
(Cure) Curable 18.39 -1.41 (-3.84, 1.02) 19.83 -0.91 (-3.17, 1.35) 19.97 -0.93 (-2.23, 0.37)
  TB does not increase AIDS/don't know 17.84 0.0   18.74 0.0   19.87 0.0  
  TB increases AIDS 19.02 1.08 (0.19, 1.86) 20.93 2.16 (1.38, 2.94) 20.42 0.55 (-0.52, 1.62)
TB Knowledge‡ AIDS does not increase TB/don't know 18.12 0.0   19.37 0.0   19.52 0.0  
(TB/HIV) AIDS increases TB 18.55 0.42 (-0.59, 1.42) 20.03 0.85 (-0.07, 1.77) 20.36 0.86 (-0.35, 2.06)
  AIDS and TB do not appear similar 17.83 0.0   19.15 0.0   20.52 0.0  
  AIDS/TB appear similar 18.68 0.86 (-0.12, 1.84) 20.14 0.86 (-0.03, 1.75) 19.89 -0.55 (-1.66, 0.57)
HIV/AIDS stigma Perceived/Community AIDS stigma 19.79 0.64 (0.58, 0.71) 21.79 0.48 (0.41, 0.55) 21.00 0.55 (0.45, 0.64)
Know person Did not know person with TB        19.75 0.0  
with TB Knew person with TB (lived)        19.98 0.13 (-1.32, 1.57)
  Knew person with TB (died)        22.42 2.59 (0.96, 4.22)
  Never tested 18.42 0.0   19.72 0.0     
HIV status§ Previously tested negative 18.17 0.04 (-1.05, 1.13) 19.44 -0.05 (-1.04, 1.94)    
  Previously tested positive 18.91 0.90 (-0.42, 2.22) 21.09 1.57 (0.39, 2.76)    
  Cough 18.70 0.0   19.98 0.0     
  Hemoptysis 18.25 -0.43 (-1.54, 0.69) 19.48 -0.57 (-1.57, 0.42)    
Symptoms§‡ Weight loss 18.57 -0.28 (-1.78, 1.22) 20.79 0.48 (-0.89, 1.85)    
  Fever and/or EPTB only 17.04 -1.61 (-3.11,-0.10) 19.17 -0.51 (-1.85, 0.83)    
  No symptoms 20.36 1.73 (-0.94, 4.40) 19.77 -0.18 (-2.64, 2.28)    
  1. *Crude, mean stigma scores for each group. For continuous variables, mean stigma scores are reported for ages 30 to 39 years old, those with 10,000 baht income, and AIDS stigma scores of 20.
  2. † MD, adjusted mean difference in summed stigma scores; CI, confidence interval; 0.0 indicates referent level. Sets of confounders used in multivariable analysis of each factor are as follows:
  3. Age and Religion: no confounders; Gender: adjusted for age and religion; Income: adjusted for age, religion and education; Education: adjusted for religion and gender; TB knowledge variables: adjusted for age, education, income (patients only) and knowing someone with TB (community members only); AIDS stigma: adjusted for age, gender, religion, education, income, TB/HIV knowledge, HIV status (patients only) and TB symptoms (patients only); Knowing someone with TB (community members only): adjusted for age and income; HIV status (patients only): adjusted for age, religion and income; TB symptoms (patients only): adjusted for gender and HIV status
  4. ‡ Cough and hemoptysis categories may also include patients with additional symptoms such as weight loss, fever, or EPTB (extrapulmonary TB); Weight loss excludes cough but may include other symptoms (e.g. fever and/or EPTB); Fever and EPTB includes patients with only those symptoms (no cough or weight loss).
  5. § Self-reported