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Table 1 Sample characteristics and internal consistency of psychosocial factors

From: Socio-demographic, psychosocial and home-environmental attributes associated with adults' domestic screen time

Variable Total sample (n = 419) Internal consistency
Cronbach alpha
Socio-demographic characteristics   
   Gender (%)   
Men 47.3  
Women 52.7  
   Age (mean [SD]) 48.50 (12.10)  
   Educational level (%)   
No college/university degree 43.3  
College/university degree 56.7  
   Employment status (%)   
Unemployed/retired 29.4  
Employed 70.6  
   Occupation (%)   
Blue-collar 19.7  
White-collar 80.3  
   Body Mass Index (mean [SD]) 24.61 (3.90)  
Home-environmental factors (mean [SD])   
   Number of TVs 1.65 (0.89)  
   Size of largest TV seta 2.75 (1.04)  
   Number of computers 1.75 (1.15)  
Psychosocial factors (mean [SD])   
   Pros reducing TV viewing (sum of different items)b 2.59 (0.68) 0.50
I think watching TV is boring 2.51 (0.96)  
Watching TV takes time away from doing other more important things 2.80 (1.22)  
I would feel lazy and sluggish if I watched TV for many hours 3.52 (1.20)  
Watching TV sometimes hurts my eyes and gives me a headache 1.53 (0.85)  
   Cons reducing TV viewing (sum of different items)b 2.54 (0.85) 0.77
I enjoy watching TV for many hours at a time 2.64 (1.13)  
Watching TV is my way to escape from the world 2.18 (1.09)  
Watching TV is one of my favorite types of entertainment 2.18 (1.14)  
I find sitting and watching TV very relaxing 3.17 (1.05)  
   Family social norm TV viewingb   
My family members think I spend too much time watching TV 1.62 (0.90)  
   Friends social norm TV viewingb   
My friends think I spend too much time watching TV 1.46 (0.72)  
   Self-efficacy reducing TV viewing (sum of different items)c 3.76 (0.84) 0.73
Turn off the TV even when there is a program on I enjoy 3.25 (1.15)  
Limit my TV time to one hour a day 3.59 (1.27)  
Leave the room where the TV is on even if others are watching TV 4.20 (0.94)  
Plan ahead of time what TV shows I will watch during the week 4.01 (1.14)  
   Pros reducing Internet use (sum of different items)b 2.51 (0.80) 0.50
I think using the Internet is boring 2.59 (1.18)  
Using the Internet takes time away from doing other more important things 2.40 (1.32)  
I would feel lazy and sluggish if I used the Internet for many hours 3.39 (1.37)  
Using the Internet sometimes hurts my eyes and gives me a headache 1.58 (0.95)  
   Cons reducing Internet use (sum of different items)b 1.79 (0.74) 0.77
I enjoy using the Internet for many hours at a time 1.85 (0.99)  
The Internet is my way to escape from the world 1.65 (0.94)  
Using the Internet is one of my favorite forms of entertainment 1.66 (0.93)  
I find sitting and using Internet very relaxing 2.13 (1.12)  
   Family social norm Internet useb   
My family members think that I spend too much time using the Internet 1.45 (0.78)  
   Friends social norm Internet useb   
My friends think that I spend too much time using the Internet 1.31 (0.61)  
   Self-efficacy reducing Internet use (sum of different items)c 4.14 (0.91) 0.78
Turn off the computer even when I am doing something funny 3.93 (1.10)  
Limit my leisure-time Internet use to one hour a day 4.38 (0.95)  
Plan ahead of time how much time I will spend on leisure-time Internet use daily 4.11 (1.18)  
Sedentary behaviors (mean [SD])   
   TV viewing time (min/day) 128.40 (76.74)  
   Leisure-time Internet use (min/day) 43.57 (46.57)  
  1. a Size of the largest TV was positively scored on a five-point scale (1-5), ranging from 39 cm to 139 cm
  2. b pros, cons, family social norm and friends social norm were positively scores on a five-point scale (1-5), ranging from 'strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree'
  3. c self-efficacy was positively scored on a five-point scale (1-5), ranging from 'I think this is very difficult' to 'I do not think this is difficult at all'
  4. SD = standard deviation