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Table 6 Socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of cigarette smoking among undergraduate medical students, June 2009

From: Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia

  Ever smoked  
Factors No, n (%) Yes, n (%) Adjusted* OR
(95% CI)
Sex    
   Female 187 (95.4) 9 (4.6) 1.00 (Reference)
   Male 381 (89.4) 45 (10.6) 1.45 (0.57, 3.67)
Age in years    
   15-19 209 (92.9) 16 (7.1) 1.00 (Reference)
   20 or more 359 (90.4) 38 (9.6) 1.00 (0.35, 2.64)
Religion    
   Other Christian 124 (93.9) 8 (6.1) 1.00 (Reference)
   Orthodox Christian 356 (91.5) 33 (8.5) 0.47 (0.15, 1.45)
   Muslim 77 (89.3) 9 (10.5) 0.90 (0.23, 3.53)
   Other 11 (73.3) 4 (26.7) 3.04 (0.34, 26.94)
Main source of family's income    
   Government employee 169 (88.9) 21 (11.1) 1.00 (Reference)
   Business 140 (86.4) 22 (13.6) 1.15 (0.46, 2.89)
   Agriculture-based 131 (97.8) 3 (2.2) 0.12 (0.01, 1.02)
   Other 128 (94.1) 8 (5.9) 0.61 (0.21, 1.80)
Original background    
   Rural 118 (95.2) 6 (4.8) 1.00 (Reference)
   Urban 450 (90.4) 48 (9.6) 0.69 (0.12, 4.10)
Medical education status    
   Pre-clinical 419 (93.7) 28 (6.3) 1.00 (Reference)
   Clinical 149 (85.1) 26 (14.9) 1.26 (0.46, 3.45)
Friend currently smoking    
   No 434 (96.0) 18 (4.0) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 18 (4.0) 434 (96.0) 3.89 (1.83, 8.30)
Father currently smoking    
   No 544 (91.6) 50 (8.4) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 24 (85.7) 4 (14.3) 2.57 (0.63, 10.56)
Consumed alcohol within the last 12 months    
   No 474 (97.3) 13 (2.7) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 94 (69.6) 41 (30.4) 8.68 (3.52, 21.45)
Used khat within the last 12 months    
   No 551 (95.2) 28 (4.8) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 17 (39.5) 26 (60.5) 7.88 (3.11, 19.95)
Total, N (%) 568 (91.3) 54 (8.7)  
  1. *Adjusted for sex, age, religion (4 levels), income (4 levels), background, education, smoking status of friends and fathers, alcohol and khat intake.