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Table 4 Prospective associations between mobile phone variables at baseline and mental health outcomes at 1-year follow-up

From: Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - a prospective cohort study

   CURRENT STRESS SLEEP DISTURBANCES SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION
One item
SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION
Two items
   n Prev % PR 95% CI n Prev % PR 95% CI n Prev % PR 95% CI n Prev % PR 95% CI
Mobile phone use                 
Men High 227 8 0.9 0.51-1.47 193 21 1.8 1.21-2.69 120 38 1.7 1.14-2.46 86 13 1.1 0.53-2.10
  Medium 258 11 1.2 0.76-1.87 243 17 1.4 0.98-2.11 121 30 1.4 0.94-2.10 105 19 1.5 0.86-2.53
  Low 652 10 1.0   596 13 1.0   333 23 1.0   305 15 1.0  
Women High 389 20 1.1 0.84-1.43 323 24 1.2 0.91-1.57 131 39 1.2 0.88-1.69 120 33 1.5 1.02-2.24
  Medium 382 18 1.0 0.75-1.30 367 20 1.1 0.81-1.40 161 31 0.9 0.68-1.30 150 26 1.2 0.83-1.79
  Low 968 19 1.0   909 19 1.0   435 33 1.0   370 22 1.0  
Availability demands                 
Men High 296 14 1.6 0.97-2.56 261 19 1.4 0.91-2.12 137 30 1.2 0.76-1.85 120 20 1.6 0.88-3.05
  Medium 525 8 0.9 0.56-1.44 491 14 1.0 0.66-1.45 285 26 1.0 0.70-1.52 246 15 1.1 0.63-1.96
  Low 314 9 1.0   280 15 1.0   152 26 1.0   131 14 1.0  
Women High 390 22 1.3 0.99-1.76 342 22 1.1 0.81-1.45 146 32 0.9 0.62-1.23 141 30 1.4 0.94-2.17
  Medium 722 19 1.1 0.87-1.45 655 20 1.0 0.79-1.30 281 31 0.8 0.63-1.12 263 26 1.2 0.85-1.78
  Low 625 17 1.0   599 19 1.0   299 37 1.0   235 20 1.0  
Awakened at night                 
Men High 138 13 1.4 0.80-2.42 116 21 1.4 0.90-2.31 57 32 1.1 0.68-1.94 48 19 1.4 0.65-2.86
  Medium 516 10 1.1 0.71-1.60 462 15 1.0 0.74-1.47 264 27 1.0 0.74-1.45 225 15 1.0 0.63-1.65
  Low 485 9 1.0   456 15 1.0   254 26 1.0   224 16 1.0  
Women High 268 22 1.2 0.86-1.60 229 23 1.2 0.87-1.68 96 39 1.2 0.84-1.81 78 24 1.1 0.62-1.80
  Medium 791 17 0.9 0.70-1.12 740 20 1.1 0.86-1.39 324 33 1.0 0.78-1.34 299 28 1.3 0.90-1.77
  Low 680 20 1.0   630 19 1.0   307 33 1.0   263 22 1.0  
Accessibility stress                 
Men High 80 19 2.2 1.22-3.80 94 23 1.7 1.06-2.71 25 24 0.9 0.40-2.14 27 30 2.3 1.06.4.98
  Medium 317 11 1.3 0.88-2.01 288 16 1.2 0.84-1.69 145 32 1.3 0.89-1.79 123 20 1.6 0.96-2.56
  Low 740 9 1.0   651 14 1.0   404 25 1.0   347 13 1.0  
Women High 176 32 2.2 1.61-3.00 181 27 1.5 1.10-2.14 54 43 1.3 0.82-2.03 58 47 2.4 1.50-3.68
  Medium 677 21 1.5 1.15-1.85 645 21 1.2 0.96-1.54 280 35 1.1 0.84-1.42 241 24 1.2 0.82-1.63
  Low 885 15 1.0   773 18 1.0   393 32 1.0   341 21 1.0  
Over-use                 
Men High 26 12 1.2 0.36-3.71 23 22 1.4 0.58.3.49 11 54 1.9 0.82-4.45 7 29 2.0 0.48-8.43
  Medium 141 13 1.3 0.79-2.18 129 13 0.9 0.52-1.43 67 28 1.1 0.68-1.80 53 9 0.6 0.25-1.55
  Low 953 10 1.0   866 16 1.0   484 26 1.0   428 16 1.0  
Women High 98 21 1.3 0.80-1.97 94 32 1.8 1.21-2.62 35 29 0.9 0.46-1.63 33 24 1.1 0.51-2.16
  Medium 353 24 1.4 1.08-1.79 323 24 1.4 1.06-1.78 125 40 1.2 0.89-1.66 109 31 1.4 0.92-2.00
  Low 1269 17 1.0   1163 18 1.0   560 33 1.0   491 23 1.0  
  1. Participants who reported symptoms at baseline were excluded from prospective analysis of mental health outcome concerned. Study group n in prospective analysis was for Current stress: 1222 men and 1913 women, Sleep disturbances: 1107 men and 1762 women, Symptoms of depression (one item): 617 men and 791 women, and Symptoms of depression (two items): 534 men and 692 women. Prevalence (prev %) of mental health symptoms at 1-year follow-up in each exposure category is shown. The prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for relationship status, educational level and occupation. Missing values (non-responses to items) were excluded from the analyses, which means that the n varied in the analyses. Prevalence ratios with a CI not including 1.00 are given in bold.