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Table 1 Cholesterol trends in whole populations in the "Pre-statin", "Early statin" and "Current statin" eras*

From: Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?

Population Survey Years Data Source
(approximate
sample size)
Number of Adults on statins Adults on long term statins
(Primary and secondary prevention)
Mean total cholesterol reduction in whole population
Men (women)
mmol/l
Estimated contribution from statins†
(%)
First author
& reference
"The Pre-Statin Era"
USA 1960-1994 NHANES (44,980) 0 0 -0.41 (-0.52 ) 0% Carroll 2005 [14]
New
Zealand
1982-1993 ARCOS (3,800) 0 0 -0.45 (-0.66 ) 0% Capewell 2000 [15]
Finland 1982-1997 FinRisk (13,000) 0 0 -0.64 (-0.66 ) 0% Laatikainen 2005 [16]
Scotland 1985-1994 MONICA (5,900) 0 0 -0.10 (-0.40 ) 0% Capewell 1999 [17]
"The Early Statin Era"
England 1981-2000 BRHS & HSE (17,500) 280,000 < 1% -0.14 (-0.07) 5% Unal 2004 [18]
Ireland 1985-2000 Kilkenny & SLAN surveys
(7,900)
60,000 2% -0.35 (-0.22) 5% Bennett 2006 [19]
Italy 1980-2000 RIFLE and OEC surveys
(62,000)
900,000 3% -0.33 (-0.37 ) 6% Palmieri 2009 [20]
Sweden 1986-2002 MONICA & INTERGENE
(8,800)
280,000 4% -0.55 (-0.68) 6% Bjorck 2009 [21]
Iceland 1981-2006 IHA population studies
(17,700)
4,000 2% -0.80 (-0.95)   Aspelund 2010 [22]
"The Current Statin Era"
UK 2003-2006 HSE (15,500) 4.4 million 11% -0.20 (- 0.20) 41% Mindell 2009 [23]
USA 1994-2002 NHANES (14,530) 18 million 9% -0.078 (-0.08) 88% Carroll 2005 [14]
USA 1999-2006 NHANES (18,050) 28 million 14% -0.106 (-0.11) 95% Ford 2009 [3]
  1. TABLE FOOTNOTE
  2. *Statin eras defined pragmatically as: "Pre-statin era": before 1997; "Early-statin era": 1997 - 1999; and "Current statin era": since 2000, using the most recent year for which data are available.
  3. †Methodology for calculating statin contribution is detailed in Additional File 1, Appendix B.
  4. Statin uptake in Sweden increased substantially between 2002 and 2009 (Eriksson M. et. al. J Intern Med. 2011;269:219-231).
  5. Abbreviations: ARCOS = Auckland Region Coronary Or Stroke; BRHS = British Regional Heart Study; HSE = Health Survey for England; MONICA = Monitoring Trends and Determinants on Cardiovascular Diseases; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; OEC = Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare; RIFLE = Risk Factors and Life Expectancy; SLAN = Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes, and Nutrition.