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Table 1 Personal Characteristics of elders

From: Evolution in intergenerational exchanges between elderly people and their grandchildren in Taiwan; data from a multiple round cross-sectional study from 1993 to 2007

  Total 1993 1999 2007   
  n = 5264 n = 868 n = 1876 n = 2520   
Characteristics N % N % N % N % chi-sq p-value
Gender           
   Male 2770 52.63 493 56.80 1009 53.78 1268 50.32 3.07 0.22
   Female 2494 47.37 375 43.20 867 46.22 1252 49.68   
Age (years)           
   60~69 1722 32.70 244 28.11 346 18.44 1132 44.92 1152.6 < 0.0001
   70~79 2298 43.66 421 48.50 1075 57.30 802 31.83   
   80~89 1106 21.01 188 21.66 402 21.43 516 20.48   
   90~99 138 2.62 15 1.73 53 2.83 70 2.78   
Education           
   Illiterate 1800 34.20 409 47.12 710 37.85 681 27.02 243.08 < 0.0001
   Under high school 2847 54.09 346 39.86 949 50.59 1552 61.59   
   College and above 273 5.19 29 3.34 89 4.74 155 6.15   
   Can read 340 6.44 81 9.33 127 6.77 132 5.24   
Ethnicity           
   Fuchien 3544 67.32 567 65.32 1232 65.67 1745 69.25 9.14 0.17
   Hakka 894 16.99 162 18.66 307 16.36 425 16.87   
   Mainlander 726 13.79 115 13.25 298 15.88 313 12.42   
   Others 85 1.62 19 2.19 32 1.71 34 1.35   
Living place           
   Large city 753 14.31 98 11.29 262 13.97 393 15.60 36.5 < 0.0001
   Big city 661 12.56 127 14.63 236 12.58 298 11.83   
   Small city 1196 22.72 181 20.85 412 21.96 603 23.30   
   Township 1032 19.59 174 20.05 350 18.66 508 20.16   
   Rural area 1622 30.82 288 33.18 616 32.84 718 28.49   
Partnership status           
   Living without partner 1972 37.45 413 47.58 1113 59.33 1766 70.07 67.34 < 0.0001
   Living with partner 3291 62.53 455 52.42 763 40.67 753 29.88   
Co-residence with children           
   No 1914 36.35 274 31.57 642 34.22 998 39.60 53.7 < 0.0001
   Yes 3350 63.65 592 68.20 1234 65.78 1522 60.4   
Employment status           
   No job 4515 85.77 745 85.83 1675 89.29 2095 83.13 61.95 < 0.0001
   Full time job 582 11.06 72 8.29 158 8.42 352 14.0   
   Part time job 167 3.17 51 5.88 43 2.29 73 2.9   
Self-reported health status           
   Bad to very bad 1851 35.17 235 27.07 791 42.16 825 32.7 110.14 < 0.0001
   Good to normal 3291 62.53 633 72.93 1085 57.84 1695 67.3   
Attitude toward NHI           
   Satisfaction           
Very satisfied to normal      1454 77.51     
Unsatisfied to very unsatisfied      154 8.21     
Secured for your future health life by NHI           
   Not helpful      150 8.00     
   Very helpful to some help      1398 74.52     
   Others      117 6.24     
  1. #including "have no answer" and "never think about this issue"
  2. ## missing data is not shown in this table