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Table 5 Individual, behavioural, psycho-social, and environmental correlates of mode shift

From: Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

  Elementary     Secondary    
  Unadjusted OR 95% CI Adjusted OR 95% CI Unadjusted OR 95% CI Adjusted OR 95% CI
Socio- demographic         
Grade         
   Grade 7 1   1   - - - -
   Grade 8 0.85 0.58-1.25 0.83 0.51-1.37 - - - -
   Grade 9 - - - - 1   1  
   Grade 10 - - - - 0.87 0.55-1.38 0.69 0.40-1.16
   Grade 11 - - - - 1.11 0.68-1.81 0.93 0.50-1.73
   Grade 12 - - - - 0.81 0.48-1.38 0.80 0.42-1. 52
Sex         
   Boys 1   1   1   1  
   Girls 0.98 0.63-1.54 0.83 0.44-1.58 0.96 0.67-1.37 0.70* 0.49-1.00
Weight status         
   Normal weight 1   1   1   1  
   Overweight/Obese 1.67 0.97-2.87 1.11 0.62-2.00 0.91 0.62-1.32 0.74 0.45-1.21
Parent born abroad         
Both/one parent born in Canada 1   1      
Both born abroad 1.76* 1.05-2.98 1.35 0.71-2.55     
Behavioural         
MVPA         
   0-4 day/wk 1   1   1   1  
   ≥5 days/wk 0.79 0.43-1.44 0.99 0.44-2.20 1.05 0.72-1.55 0.84 0.55-1.28
Part-time job         
   Did not work outside home -     1   1  
   1-5 hours/wk - -    0.73 0.42-1.29 1.06 0.58-1.92
   ≥6 hours/wk - -    0.68* 0.47-0.99 0.71 0.45-1.12
Psychological         
Perceived physical health         
   Fair/poor 1   1   -    
   Excellent/very good/good 2.86** 1.42-5.76 2.97* 1.00-8.81 - -   
Decision-making on mode choice         
   Never/rarely/sometimes 1   1   1   1  
   Often/always 3.00*** 1.81-4.96 2.43*** 1.23-4.80 2.29*** 1.64-3.20 2.42*** 1.61-3.63
Parents don't know where their children are in free time away from home         
   Always/usually 1   1      
   Sometimes/seldom/never 2.64** 1.46-4.77 1.87* 1.00-3.49     
Environmental         
Travelled to school         
   0-15 minutes 1   1   1   1  
   16-30 minutes 0.32* 0.11-0.94 0.11*** 0.03-0.40 0.38** 0.21-0.67 0.16*** 0.09-0.30
   ≥31 minutes 0.32* 0.11-0.95 0.07*** 0.02-0.29 0.10*** 0.03-0.27 0.03*** 0.01-0.10
Travelled from school         
   0-15 minutes -     1   1  
   16-30 minutes - -    1.79** 1.23-2.60 4.32*** 2.82-6.60
   ≥31 minutes - -    1.87** 1.23-2.85 10.49*** 6.44-17.09
Living in urban area         
   Rural 1   1   1   1  
   Urban 3.79* 1.14-12.60 3.58* 1.00-12.90 5.60** 1.97-15.89 3.24* 1.18-8.85
Regions         
   Toronto 1   1   -    
   North 0.52 0.17-1.59 0.65 0.19-2.21 - -   
   West 0.66 0.27-1.60 0.85 0.29-2.48 - -   
   East 0.26** 0.10-0.66 0.42 0.15-1.19 - -   
Changing school in the last five years         
   No -     1   1  
   Yes - -    1.48* 1.04-2.10 1.43 0.96-2.10
  1. *** p < 0.001;** p < 0.01;* p < 0.05
  2. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. The unadjusted and adjusted ORs and CIs of variables only included in the final models are reported in this table.