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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample according to ethnic group

From: Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

  Dutch N = 1718 African descent N = 238 Turkish N = 162 Moroccan N = 245 Others N = 793
Prenatal pre-pregnancy factors      
Age (year) 32.4 (4.1)1 29.0 (6.3) 26.5 (5.2) 27.6 (5.5) 31.3 (5.1)
Parity (%)      
0 60.9 46.2 39.5 47.3 54.5
1 31.7 27.3 35.8 27.3 32.4
≥ 2 7.5 26.5 24.7 25.3 13.1
Maternal education (%)      
0-5 years 7.0 42.6 56.5 54.2 22.4
6-10 years 34.3 47.8 38.5 40.8 40.0
> 10 years 58.7 9.6 5.0 5.0 37.6
Height (cm) 171 (6.2) 166 (6.2) 162 (5.1) 164 (6.7) 166 (7.2)
BMI mother (kg/m2) 22.6 (3.3) 24.4 (5.2) 24.6 (4.6) 25.1 (4.4) 22.7 (3.8)
Hypertension (%)      
Pre-existent 3.2 3.8 3.1 4.7 3.6
Gestational 11.8 8.9 5.0 7.2 7.4
Diabetes (%)      
Pre-existent 0.5 2.1 1.9 2.4 0.8
Gestational 0.1 0.8 0.6 0.0 0.4
Smoking (%)      
None 90.4 89.5 80.2 97.6 90.0
1-5 cigarettes/day 6.2 7.6 13.0 1.2 6.2
≥ 6 cigarettes/day 3.4 3.0 6.8 1.2 3.8
Physical activity (%)      
Not 6.6 34.5 32.7 34.7 20.1
Low 19.5 41.6 50.0 39.6 28.4
Moderate 32.0 16.4 11.7 20.8 23.8
High 41.9 7.6 5.6 4.9 27.7
Birth outcomes      
Birth weight (kg) 3.51 (0.55) 3.26 (0.62) 3.39 (0.53) 3.46 (0.50) 3.39 (0.54)
Gestational age (wk) 39.9 (1.7) 39.3 (2.0) 39.5 (1.8) 40.0 (1.5) 39.8 (1.7)
Gender (%)      
Boy 50.8 47.1 50.0 53.5 46.5
Girl 49.2 52.9 50.0 46.5 53.5
Postnatal factors      
Exclusive breastfeeding (%)      
None 18.5 18.9 5.6 12.2 18.3
< 1 month 7.1 12.6 17.3 13.1 8.6
1-3 months 30.7 40.3 31.5 42.0 30.9
> 3 months 43.7 28.2 45.7 32.7 42.2
Infant weight gain during the first 6 months (100 g/mo) 7.07 (1.34) 7.60 (1.56) 7.83 (1.50) 7.79 (1.47) 7.10 (1.35)
BMI 2 yr (kg/m2) 16.2 (1.3) 16.2 (1.4) 16.8 (1.7) 16.9 (1.7) 16.1 (1.4)
Overweight 2 yr (%) 7.1 9.2 19.8 16.7 8.8
  1. 1 Mean (SD) (all such values)