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Table 3 Risk of maternal mortality by individual, institutional and national characteristics

From: The relationship between maternal education and mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions: Analysis of the cross sectional WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

  Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Characteristics of the women  
UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education19
   Post-secondary/tertiary (>12 years of education) 1.00
   Upper secondary (10-12 years of education) 1.05 (0.70,1.57)
   Lower secondary (7-9 years of education) 1.14 (0.75,1.73)
   Primary education (1-6 years of education) 1.88 (1.26,2.79)
   No education 3.92 (2.60,5.92)
Maternal age 1.00 (0.98,1.02)
Maternal age group  
   10-19 years 1.06 (0.76,1.48)
   20-25 years 1.00
   26-30 years 0.96 (0.74,1.26)
   31-35 years 0.86 (0.62,1.21)
   36-55 years 1.79 (1.29,2.47)
Marital status:  
   Married/cohabiting 1.00
   Not married/cohabiting 1.60 (1.24,2.07)
Higher number of previous births 1.26 (1.21,1.31)
Characteristics of the institutions  
Lower institutional capacity score 1.02 (1.01,1.03)
Characteristics of the countries  
Lower national public expenditure on health 1.03 (1.02,1.04)
Lower national per capita health expenditure 1.01 (1.00,1.01)