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Table 2 Association of combined anxiety/depression scores1 with change in blood pressure from baseline (HUNT 1) to 22-year follow-up (HUNT 3)

From: Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway

  Adjusted for age, sex, educational level, and baseline BP2 Additionally adjusted for health factors and medication3 Additionally adjusted for heart rate4
  B P R 2 B P R 2 B P R 2
Combined anxiety/depression Systolic blood pressure
   Baseline, per SD increase -0.39 0.009 0.22 -0.32 0.032 0.23 -0.33 0.025 0.24
   High at baseline -0.67 0.044 0.22 -0.55 0.099 0.23 -0.61 0.067 0.24
   High at baseline and at 11 y -1.27 0.006 0.22 -1.15 0.012 0.23 -1.21 0.008 0.24
   High at baseline, 11 y and 22 y -1.59 0.004 0.22 -1.49 0.007 0.23 -1.51 0.006 0.24
Combined anxiety/depression Diastolic blood pressure
   Baseline, per SD increase -0.17 0.054 0.38 -0.12 0.176 0.39 -0.13 0.145 0.42
   High at baseline -0.25 0.201 0.38 -0.15 0.439 0.39 -0.21 0.278 0.42
   High at baseline and at 11 y -0.54 0.050 0.38 -0.44 0.110 0.39 -0.51 0.058 0.42
   High at baseline, 11 y and 22 y -0.78 0.019 0.38 -0.73 0.026 0.39 -0.75 0.019 0.42
  1. BP, blood pressure; SD, standard deviation; B, mm Hg change in BP during follow-up, from linear regression analyses.
  2. 1Estimated with the Anxiety and Depression Symptom Index-12 (HUNT 1) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HUNT 2 and 3). A high symptom level was defined as score above the 80th percentile of the two scales.
  3. 2Systolic or diastolic.
  4. 3Angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, low physical activity, antihypertensive medication (baseline and change during follow-up); hypertension among siblings (baseline and change from baseline to year 11); and waist circumference (year 11 and change from year 11 to year 22).
  5. 4Baseline and change during follow-up.