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Table 1 Characteristics of participants (n = 17,410) at baseline, at 11-year, and at 22-year follow-up

From: Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway

  Baseline
(HUNT 1, 1984-86)
11-year follow-up
(HUNT 2, 1995-97)
22-year follow-up
(HUNT 3, 2006-08)
Demographics    
   Age, y 40.0 ± 10.6   
   Sex, % female 54.7   
   Educational level, %    
Low 37.3   
Medium 48.6   
High 14.0   
HADS1 defined symptom level    
   Anxiety   4.2 ± 3.2 3.9 ± 3.2
   Depression   3.5 ± 2.9 3.6 ± 2.9
Blood pressure, mm Hg    
   Systolic 126.7 ± 15.9 136.5 ± 19.3 135.1 ± 19.3
   Diastolic 80.9 ± 10.5 81.5 ± 11.2 75.2 ± 11.1
Heart rate, bpm 73.0 ± 11.6 71.6 ± 12.2 69.4 ± 11.7
Medical history, %    
   Angina pectoris 0.7 2.7 5.1
   Myocardial infarction 0.3 1.8 4.6
   Stroke 0.2 0.8 3.4
   Diabetes mellitus 0.5 1.7 5.7
   Hypertension among siblings 9.9 11.8 No data
Lifestyle and health factors    
   Waist circumference, cm No data 86.0 ± 10.9 95.1 ± 11.6
   Low physical activity, %2 39.4 26.1 21.9
   Smoking, % 31.0 25.6 17.8
Medication    
   Antidepressants, % No data 3.2 No data
   Antihypertensives, %3 4.7 11.5 29.0
  1. Data are percentages or means ± standard deviation.
  2. Bpm, beats per minute
  3. 1The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (At HUNT 1, a one-dimensional anxiety and depression symptom index was used).
  4. 2Defined as physical activity less than once a week (HUNT 1 and 3) or less than one hour a week (HUNT 2).
  5. 3Previously or currently.