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Table 1 The five endgame approaches as presented to participants

From: Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

Endgame approach Key features of model or action
Model 1: Nicotine Authority Regulates the nicotine/tobacco market to achieve public health aims
  Government-owned but independent from government
  Operating costs could be covered from tobacco tax revenues
  Broad range of possible roles and powers, e.g.:
     • Set tobacco tax and retail price levels
  • Control all aspects of tobacco product marketing and design: including retailing,
plain packaging, ingredients and additives, nicotine content etc.
     • Require tobacco businesses to disclose all required information to it
     • Fund and commission tobacco control activities such as social marketing campaigns and quit smoking support
  Introduce subsidies for safer nicotine products.
Model 2: Tobacco Supply Agency Non-profit-making independent (but government-owned) agency that controls supply and access to tobacco/nicotine products
  Has public health aims, not-for-profit
  Operating costs could be covered by tobacco tax
  Tobacco manufacturers can only sell products to the Agency
  Agency specifies features such as product packaging, ingredients and additives, and nicotine content
  Agency supplies products to licensed retailers, and sets requirements for their activities, including retail prices
  Agency could also have a broad range of activities like those described for the Nicotine
  Authority (see Model 1 above)
  Fixed life - to end in 2020 or before, when targets met.
Action 1: Tobacco companies bid for reducing quotas Tobacco companies bid for quotas to supply cigarettes and tobacco to New Zealand market
  Quotas reduced progressively e.g. 5% absolute reduction every six months, reducing to zero in 10-15 years.
Action 2: Penalties for tobacco companies, to promote rapid smoking reductions A new law mandates yearly targets for tobacco companies to reduce smoking prevalence and end smoking over a fixed period (e.g. to zero in 10-15 years)
  Severe penalties imposed on tobacco companies ($ many millions) if the targets are not met.
Action 3: New laws make it easier to take tobacco companies to court - and win New legislation or change to existing legislation (e.g. strengthening the New Zealand Fair Trading Act) to make it substantially easier for individuals, groups or the government to take tobacco companies to court for selling a harmful product
  Companies could be prosecuted for things like failing to make cigarettes fire-safe, or for adding chemicals that make tobacco more addictive and cigarettes sweeter-tasting.