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Table 4 Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion

From: Support for smoke-free policy, and awareness of tobacco health effects and use of smoking cessation therapy in a developing country

Characteristic Noticed tobacco advertising N (%) Adjusted odds ratio Noticed promotion for tobacco company N (%) Adjusted odds ratio
Total 2216 (35.4)   767 (12.3)  
Age group     
14-19 279(30.8) 1 108(11.9) 1
20-29 665(34.6) 1.21(1.03-1.42) 238(12.4) 1.04 (0.78-1.37)
30-39 471(36.9) 1.38 (1.15-1.64) 167(13.1) 1.15 (0.86-1.56)
40-49 330(40.7) 1.65 (1.32-2.07) 114(14.1) 1.25 (0.91-1.72)
50+ 471(35.1) 1.33 (1.08-1.63) 140(10.4) 0.94 (0.65-0.95)
  p = 0.003   p = 0.09  
  Pt = 0.002   Pt = 0.52  
Gender     
Male 915 (40.2) 1 314(13.8) 1
Female 1301(32.7) 0.70 (0.60-0.81) 453(11.4) 0.79 (0.66-0.95)
  P < 0.001   p = 0.03  
Locality type     
Urban 1333(42.2) 1 489(15.5) 1
Rural 883(28.5) 0.53 (0.43-0.66) 278(9.0) 0.55 (0.37-0.83)
  P < 0.001   P < 0.001  
Smoking Status     
Non smoker 2108(34.9) 1 734(12.1) 1
Smoker 108 (50.7) 1.50 (1.09-2.07) 33(15.5) 1.13 (0.70-1.84)
  p = 0.02   p = 0.60  
Education     
Illiterate 352 (35.1) 1 89(8.9) 1
Primary 286 (37.4) 1.04 (0.78-1.38) 84(11.0) 1.19 (0.84-1.67)
Secondary 1450 (34.5) 0.80 (0.63-1.02) 548(13.0) 1.34 (0.92-1.95)
Tertiary 128 (45.2) 0.98 (0.67-1.43) 46(16.3) 1.43 (0.99-2.07)
  p = 0.03   p = 0.007  
  Pt = 0.07   Pt = 0.30  
Ethnicity     
Akan 1904 (35.1) 1 644 (11.9) 1
Ewe 24 (40.7) 1.31 (0.69-2.50) 13 (22.0) 1.95 (0.86-4.40)
Dagomba 30 (69.8) 3.95 (1.97-7.95) 8 (18.6) 1.44 (0.43-4.89)
Other 258 (35.2) 1.00 (0.83-1.21) 102 (13.9) 1.19 (0.91-1.56)
  p = 0.002   p = 0.22  
Religion     
Christian 1988 (34.9) 1 685 (12.0) 1
Muslim 150 (35.4) 1.04 (0.85-1.28) 67 (15.8) 1.38 (1.04-1.84)
Traditionalist 57 (69.5) 4.18 (1.81-9.67) 3 (3.7) 0.28 (0.08-0.93)
Other 21 (39.6) 1.04 (0.61-1.77) 12 (22.6) 1.87 (0.87-4.04)
  p = 0.02   p = 0.005  
    Pt = 0.02  
  1. P = Adjusted Wald test; Pt = P value for trend; odds ratio adjusted for age, gender and locality type.