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Table 3 Awareness of and support for smoke-free regulation in Ashanti, Ghana

From: Support for smoke-free policy, and awareness of tobacco health effects and use of smoking cessation therapy in a developing country

Characteristic Regulation at workplace/school Adjusted odds ratio Regulation in places often visited Adjusted odds ratio Regulation at home Adjusted odds ratio Support for smoke free legislation Adjusted odds ratio
  Number (%) aware of any regulation   Number (%) aware of any regulation   Number (%) aware of any regulation    
Total 2349 (37.8)   1924 (30.9)   1715 (27.4)   6904 (97.4)  
  (35 missing)   (24 missing)      
Age group         
14-19 570 (63.2) 1 340 (37.6) 1 269 (29.7) 1 885 (97.7) 1
20-29 722 (37.7) 0.36 (0.30-0.44) 612 (31.9) 0.79(0.64-0.96) 501 (26.1) 0.89(0.74-1.07) 1873 (97.4) 0.81 (0.46-1.43)
30-39 416 (32.8) 0.29 (0.24-0.36) 390 (30.7) 0.75(0.60-0.94) 357 (28.0) 0.98(0.77-1.24) 1255 (98.2) 1.19 (0.67-2.11)
40-49 256 (31.7) 0.28 (0.22-0.35) 256 (31.7) 0.79(0.60-1.04) 216 (26.6) 0.90(0.69-1.17) 792 (97.7) 0.87 (0.48-1.60)
50+ 385 (28.9) 0.24 (0.19-0.31) 326 (24.5) 0.57(0.45-0.71) 372 (27.7) 0.94(0.75-1.18) 1289 (96.1) 0.48 (0.29-0.80)
  P < 0.001   P < 0.001   P = 0.14   p = 0.004  
  Pt < 0.001   Pt < 0.001   Pt = 0.85   Pt = 0.02  
Gender         
Male 1052 (46.5) 1 729 (32.2) 1 721 (31.7) 1 2162 (95.1) 1
Female 1297 (32.8) 0.57 (0.51-0.65) 1195 (30.1) 0.92(0.80-1.05) 994 (25.0) 0.72(0.65-0.80) 3932 (98.7) 4.04 (2.84-5.74)
  P < 0.001   P = 0.20   P < 0.001   P < 0.001  
Locality type         
Urban 1251 (39.8) 1 1099 (34.9) 1 815 (25.8) 1 3052 (96.6) 1
Rural 1098 (35.7) 0.84 (0.71-1.00) 825 (26.8) 0.69(0.58-0.83) 900 (29.1) 1.17(0.65-0.80) 3042 (98.2) 2.15 (1.46-3.18)
  P = 0.04   P < 0.001   P = 0.15   p = 0.008  
Smoking Status         
Non smoker 2286 (38.0) 1 1871 (31.1) 1 1657 (27.4) 1 5934 (98.2) 1
Smoker 63 (29.6) 0.55 (0.42-0.74) 53 (24.9) 0.73(0.49-1.09) 58 (27.2) 0.81(0.57-1.14) 160 (75.1) 0.08 (0.05-0.14)
  P < 0.001   P = 0.12   P = 0.21   P < 0.001  
Education         
Illiterate 286 (28.7) 1 98 (19.9) 1 301 (30.0) 1 980 (97.6) 1
Primary 203 (26.6) 0.69 (0.53-0.90) 199 (26.1) 1.29(1.05-1.59) 209 (27.3) 0.83(0.64-1.07) 744 (97.3) 0.83(0.45-1.53)
Secondary 1689 (40.4) 1.14 (0.53-1.44) 1409 (33.6) 1.76(1.50-2.07) 1110 (26.4) 0.77(0.62-0.96) 4100 (97.5) 1.15 (0.64-2.04)
Tertiary 171 (60.6) 2.63 (1.90-3.65) 118 (41.7) 2.43(1.75-3.37) 95 (33.6) 1.06(0.79-1.43) 270 (95.4) 1.08 (0.49-2.78)
  P < 0.001   P < 0.001   p = 0.031   p = 0.75  
  Pt < 0.001   Pt < 0.001     Pt = 0.53  
Ethnicity         
Akan 2075 (38.5) 1 1716 (31.8) 1 1503 (27.7) 1 5277 (97.3) 1
Ewe 25 (42.4) 1.23 (0.58-2.58) 13 (22.0) 0.59(0.27-1.28) 21 (35.6) 1.54(0.79-3.03) 58 (98.3) 1.34 (0.16-11.06)
Dagomba 13 (30.2) 0.79 (0.42-1.47) 6 (14.0) 0.34(0.13-0.87) 16 (37.2) 1.57(0.93-2.65) 41 (95.4) 0.68 (0.18-2.60)
Other 236 (32.5) 0.76 (0.62-0.94) 189 (25.9) 0.74(0.58-0.94) 175 (23.9) 0.81(0.65-1.02) 718 (98.0) 1.35 (0.73-2.49)
  p = 0.06   p = 0.001   p = 0.24   p = 0.68  
Religion         
Christian 2156 (38.0) 1 1788 (31.5) 1 1544 (27.1) 1 5562 (97.6) 1
Muslim 137 (32.7) 0.78 (0.61-0.99) 114 (27.0) 0.81(0.61-1.08) 115 (27.1) 0.99(0.79-1.24) 414 (97.6) 1.12 (0.67-1.85)
Trad. 42 (51.2) 1.66 (0.90-3.06) 8 (9.8) 0.25(0.12-0.51) 48 (58.5) 3.20(1.66-6.16) 66 (80.5) 0.15 (0.07-0.32)
Other 14 (26.4) 0.49 (0.23-1.02) 14 (26.4) 0.76(0.45-1.30) 8 (15.1) 0.45(0.20-1.03) 52 (98.1) 4 2.23 (0.41-12.19)
  p = 0.02   p = 0.002   p = 0.002   p = 0.000  
  1. P = Adjusted Wald test; Pt = P value for trend; odds ratio adjusted for age, gender and locality type.