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Table 1 Advertisements warning about tobacco risks, health risks posed by passive smoking and parental influence on children smoking

From: Support for smoke-free policy, and awareness of tobacco health effects and use of smoking cessation therapy in a developing country

Characteristic Number (%) Number (%) noticed warning Adjusted odds ratio Number (%) agree passive smoking dangerous Adjusted odds ratio Number (%) agree smoking influences children Adjusted odds ratio
Total 6258 5256 (84.0) (7 missing)   5612 (90.0)   5986 (95.7)  
Age group        
14-19 1144 (18.3) 740(64.7) 1 1041 (91.0) 1 1094 (95.6) 1
20-29 1686 (26.9) 1605(95.2) 1.21 (0.99-1.48) 1521 (90.2) 1.08(0.79-1.47) 1593 (94.5) 1.49(1.0-2.24)
30-39 1277 (20.4) 1079(84.5) 1.30 (1.07-1.56) 1157 (90.6) 1.07(0.80-1.42) 1233 (96.6) 1.85(1.25-2.75)
40-49 810 (12.9) 710(87.7) 1.68 (1.27-2.22) 721 (88.9) 0.89(0.67-1.17) 787 (97.0) 2.22(1.43-3.45)
50+ 1341 (21.4) 1122(83.7) 1.18 (0.89-1.56) 1172 (87.4) 0.78(0.55-1.11) 1279 (95.4) 1.35(1.02-1.79)
   p = 0.017   P = 0.056   p = 0.02  
   Pt = 0.15   Pt = 0.022   Pt = 0.18  
Gender        
Male 2274 (36.3) 2001(88.0) 1 2034 (89.5) 1 2132 (93.8) 1
Female 3984 (63.7) 3255(81.8) 0.60 (0.52-0.70) 3578 (89.8) 1.04(0.81-1.33) 3854 (96.7) 0.51 (0.39-0.69)
   P < 0.001   P = 0.74   P < 0.001  
Locality type        
Urban 3161 (50.5) 2575(81.6) 1 2845 (90.0) 1 3011 (95.3) 1
Rural 3097 (49.5) 2681(86.7) 1.46 (1.14-1.87) 2767 (89.3) 0.94(0.68-1.29) 2975 (96.1) 1.9 (1.46-2.58)
   p = 0.004   P = 0.68   P = 0.30  
Smoking Status        
Non smoker 6045 (96.6) 5070(84.0) 1 5437 (90.0) 1 5801 (96.0) 1
Smoker 213 (3.4) 186(87.3) 1.08 (0.66-1.76) 175 (82.2) 0.52(0.31-0.88) 185 (86.9) 0.34(0.20-0.57)
   p = 0.76   P = 0.017   P = 0.0002  
Education        
Illiterate 1004 (16.0) 810 (80.8) 1 889 (88.6) 1 953 (94.9) 1
Primary 765 (12.2) 644 (84.3) 1.32 (1.05-1.64) 678 (88.6) 0.92(0.65-1.29) 736 (96.2) 1.50 (0.88-2.57)
Secondary 4206 (67.2) 3554 (84.6) 1.42 (1.11-1.81) 3789 (90.1) 1.03(0.77-1.37) 4027 (95.7) 1.50 (0.99-2.28)
Tertiary 283 (4.5) 248 (87.6) 1.70 (1.12-2.58) 256 (90.5) 1.10(0.64-1.92) 270 (95.4) 1.60(0.85-2.99)
   p = 0.025   P = 0.90   P = 0.18  
   Pt < 0.05   Pt = 0.66   Pt = 0.04  
Ethnicity        
Akan 5423 (86.7) 4568 (84.3) 1 4886 (90.1) 1 5193 (95.8) 1
Ewe 59 (0.9) 48 (81.4) 0.84 (0.38-1.87) 54 (91.5) 1.13(0.42-1.29) 57 (96.6) 1.33 (0.35-5.07)
Dagomba 43 (0.7) 39 (90.1) 1.95 (0.54-7.00) 43 (100) 1.23(0.67-1.34) 42 (97.7) 1.74(0.22-3.41)
Other 733 (11.7) 601 (82.2) 0.86 (0.65-1.13) 629 (85.8) 0.65(0.51-0.83) 694 (94.7) 0.79 (0.53-1.18)
   p = 0.575   p = 0.002   p = 0.66  
Religion        
Christian 5699(91.1) 4947 (86.8) 1 5107 (89.6) 1 5452 (95.7) 1
Muslim 424 (6.8) 342 (81.0) 0.79 (0.66-0.95) 377 (88.9) 0.94(0.64-1.39) 401 (94.6) 0.85 (0.48-1.51)
Traditionali st 82 (1.3) 77 (93.9) 2.16 (0.79-5.94) 80 (97.6) 5.00 (1.2-20.8) 80 (97.6) 2.24 (0.53-9.42)
Other 53 (0.9) 40 (75.5) 0.47 (0.22-0.98) 48 (90.6) 1.17(0.37-3.73) 53 (100) 2.12 (0.62-3.12)
   P < 0.05   p = 0.190   p = 0.49  
  1. p = Adjusted Wald test; Pt = P value for trend; odds ratio adjusted for age, gender and locality type.