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Table 3 Correlates of adolescents' perceptions about smokers

From: Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

Correlates Referent category for Odds Ratio (highlighted in bold) Positive perceptions* (%) Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p value
Gender Male 11.2 2.89 < 0.05
  Female 4.2 (1.59, 5.24)  
Tobacco use status Ever tobacco users 24.3 5.72 < 0.05
  Never tobacco users 5.3 (3.34, 9.82)  
  Current smokers 42.2 12.99 < 0.05
  Never tobacco users 5.3 (6.16, 26.81)^  
Exposure to others using tobacco Having smoker friends 12.8 4.65 < 0.05
  Having smoke-free friends 3.1 (2.44, 8.84)  
  Having friends who used tobacco in any form (smoking and/or chewing) 12.4 4.64 < 0.05
  Having tobacco-free friends 3.0 (2.39, 9.01)  
  Having one or more family members smoking tobacco 9.7 1.56 0.11
  Having smoke-free family 6.4 (0.89, 2.71)  
  Having one or more family members using tobacco 10.1 1.71 0.06
  Having tobacco-free family 6.2 (0.96, 3.06)  
  Exposure to teachers using tobacco 13.4 2.42 < 0.05
  Not exposed to teachers using tobacco 6.0 (1.44, 4.07)  
  Exposure to on-screen tobacco use 7.6 0.60 0.22
  No exposure to on-screen tobacco use 12.1 (0.25, 1.65)^  
Awareness on Aware of harms of smoking 7.5 0.62 0.23
smoking harms Not aware of smoking harms 11.6 (0.28, 1.37)  
  Awareness of harms of passive smoking 7.4 0.81 0.41
  Not aware of harms of passive smoking 8.9 (0.31, 2.75)^  
Exposure to Cigarette Exposure to cigarettes advertisements 8.7 1.23 0.43
advertisements No exposure to cigarette advertisements 7.2 (0.73, 2.06)  
School type Government managed 6.6 0.79 0.59
  Private managed 8.2 (0.30, 1.79)  
  1. *This data represents proportion of students who had only positive or negative perceptions of smokers and exclude those students who reported ambivalent perception of smokers. ^Data using Fisher exact test as one of the table value was less than five.