Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study and comparison groups

From: Effect of Qigong on quality of life: a cross-sectional population-based comparison study in Taiwan

Variables/n (%) or mean ± S.D. Study group
(n = 165)
Comparison group
(n = 660)
pvalue
Gender    
   Male 68(41.2) 272(41.2) 1.000
   Female 97(58.8) 388(58.8)  
Age    
   < 60 67(40.6) 223(33.8) 0.200
   60-69 55(33.3) 227(34.4)  
   ≥ 70 43(26.1) 210(31.8)  
Education    
   High school or less 117(70.9) 449(68.0) 0.476
   College or above 48(29.1) 211(32.0)  
Alcohol use    
   Rarely 128(77.6) 547(82.9) 0.001
   Occasionally 31(18.8) 62(9.4)  
   Regularly 6(3.6) 51(7.7)  
Smoking    
   Never 131(79.4) 515(78.0) 0.018
   Ever 20(12.1) 47(7.1)  
   Current 14(8.5) 98(14.9)  
Exercise status    
   No 0(0.0) 206(31.2) < .001
   Yes 165(100.0) 454(68.8)  
Exercise by calories    
   No exercise 0(0.0) 206(31.2) < .001
   < 1000 kcal/week 26(15.8) 257(38.9)  
   ≥ 1000 kcal/week 139(84.2) 197(29.9)  
Stroke    
   No 164(99.4) 642(97.3) 0.146
   Yes 1(0.6) 18(2.7)  
Diabetes    
   No 156(94.6) 580(87.9) 0.014
   Yes 9(5.5) 80(12.1)  
Heart disease    
   No 159(96.4) 538(81.5) < .001
   Yes 6(3.6) 122(18.5)  
Hypertension    
   No 138(83.6) 441(66.8) < .001
   Yes 27(16.4) 219(33.2)  
Practice year 12.4 ± 7.9   
   < 10 years 64(38.8)   
   10~20 years 76(46.1)   
   > 20 years 25(15.2)   
SF-36 scale    
   PF 86.8 ± 14.9 78.6 ± 23.5 < .001
   RP 82.3 ± 31.5 65.8 ± 43.5 < .001
   BP 82.3 ± 15.1 74.9 ± 22.9 < .001
   GH 75.8 ± 17.4 59.3 ± 22.7 < .001
   VT 72.1 ± 16.7 62.8 ± 20.1 < .001
   SF 84.1 ± 14.2 82.4 ± 20.9 0.211
   RE 79.2 ± 33.8 75.4 ± 39.5 0.215
   MH 76.5 ± 14.6 72.3 ± 17.4 0.002
   PC 52.0 ± 5.9 46.3 ± 10.4 < .001
   MC 50.9 ± 7.8 49.9 ± 9.6 0.154
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. PF, physical functioning; RP, role limitations due to physical problems; BP, bodily pain; GH, general health; VT, vitality; SF, social functioning; RE, role limitations due to emotional problems; MH, general mental health; PC, physical component summary; MC, mental component summary.
  3. 2. p values were calculated with chi-square test for categorical variables, and t-test with Bonferroni post-test correction for continuous variables.