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Table 2 Hazard ratios for total cancer and cardiovascular disease according to supplement use categories

From: Use of vitamin supplements and risk of total cancer and cardiovascular disease among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Total Excluding cases within 5 years
   Person-years No. of cases HR*1 (95% CI*) P HR2 (95% CI) P No. of cases HR2 (95% CI) P
Men           
    Total cancer    
  Never use 220,948 2152 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1210 1.00 (reference)  
  Past use 28,863 324 0.98 (0.87-1.10) 0.8 0.98 (0.87-1.10) 0.8 167 0.95 (0.80-1.11) 0.5
  Recent use 9603 102 1.00 (0.82-1.22) 0.97 1.01 (0.83-1.23) 0.9 59 1.05 (0.80-1.36) 0.7
  Consistent use 10,863 139 1.11 (0.94-1.32) 0.2 1.10 (0.93-1.31) 0.3 75 1.13 (0.89-1.43) 0.3
    Cardiovascular disease    
  Never use 203,013 934 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   490 1.00 (reference)  
  Past use 26,639 125 0.91 (0.75-1.09) 0.3 0.89 (0.73-1.07) 0.2 61 0.86 (0.66-1.12) 0.3
  Recent use 8889 31 0.71 (0.50-1.02) 0.06 0.72 (0.51-1.04) 0.08 15 0.66 (0.39-1.10) 0.1
  Consistent use 10,059 53 1.03 (0.78-1.36) 0.8 1.02 (0.77-1.35) 0.9 28 1.04 (0.71-1.53) 0.8
Women           
    Total cancer    
  Never use 248,659 1299 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   698 1.00 (reference)  
  Past use 44,237 287 1.19 (1.04-1.35) 0.01 1.17 (1.02-1.33) 0.02 157 1.21 (1.01-1.44) 0.04
  Recent use 15,217 101 1.25 (1.02-1.53) 0.03 1.24 (1.01-1.52) 0.04 56 1.26 (0.96-1.66) 0.1
  Consistent use 18,892 97 0.94 (0.76-1.16) 0.6 0.92 (0.75-1.13) 0.4 47 0.82 (0.61-1.11) 0.2
    Cardiovascular disease    
  Never use 227,570 530 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   262 1.00 (reference)  
  Past use 40,586 116 1.11 (0.91-1.36) 0.3 1.08 (0.88-1.32) 0.5 63 1.24 (0.94-1.64) 0.1
  Recent use 13,918 43 1.30 (0.95-1.77) 0.1 1.32 (0.97-1.81) 0.08 20 1.26 (0.80-1.99) 0.3
  Consistent use 17,309 26 0.60 (0.40-0.89) 0.01 0.60 (0.41-0.89) 0.01 14 0.70 (0.41-1.21) 0.2
  1. Never use, neither past nor recent use; Past use, past use but not recent use; Recent use, recent use but not past use; Consistent use, both past and recent use.
  2. *HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  3. HR1: Adjusted for age and public health center area.
  4. HR2: Further adjusted for body mass index, smoking status, ethanol intake, occupation, daily total physical activity level, green vegetable intake, total energy intake, medication, and screening examination.