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Table 1 Population characteristics according to supplement use categories, Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study

From: Use of vitamin supplements and risk of total cancer and cardiovascular disease among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

   Men (n= 28,903) Women (n= 33,726)
   Never use Past use Recent use Consistent use P Never use Past use Recent use Consistent use P
No. (%) 23,535 (81.4) 3161 (10.9) 1026 (3.6) 1181 (4.1)   25,525 (75.7) 4672 (13.9) 1567 (4.6) 1962 (5.8)  
Age in years (mean (SE*)) 55.7 (0.05) 57.9 (0.1) 57.1 (0.2) 58.2 (0.2) <.0001 56.1 (0.05) 57.9 (0.1) 56.7 (0.2) 57.8 (0.2) <.0001
Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 (%) 29.1 26.9 27.1 25.9 0.0049 29.0 31.0 26.3 23.6 <.0001
Smoking status (%) Former smoker 16.6 18.6 19.5 21.3 <.0001 0.7 1.2 1.7 1.4 <.0001
  Current smoker 47.8 44.8 41.4 42.2   4.3 5.7 4.7 5.2  
Regular drinker, ≥ 150 g ethanol/wk (%) 50.5 46.1 46.8 45.5 <.0001 2.4 2.6 3.1 3.6 0.002
Mean MET*-hours/d (mean (SE)) 33.1 (0.05) 32.9 (0.1) 33.3 (0.2) 32.7 (0.2) 0.06 32.2 (0.04) 31.9 (0.09) 32.3 (0.2) 32.0 (0.1) 0.003
Medication (%) Hypertension 16.7 21.9 17.0 21.5 <.0001 17.8 24.4 18.1 20.0 <.0001
  Hyperlipidemia 3.0 4.3 3.9 4.9 <.0001 6.0 7.8 7.5 9.3 <.0001
  Diabetes 3.2 4.2 2.8 4.5 0.001 2.0 2.8 2.2 1.5 0.0005
  Others 12.2 17.1 15.4 15.1 <.0001 10.9 13.1 16.3 15.9 <.0001
History (%) Angina 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.6 0.03 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.2 0.2
  Diabetes 5.8 6.6 5.8 7.5 0.04 3.0 3.4 3.3 2.5 0.2
  Gastric ulcer 5.0 5.4 5.0 4.9 0.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.9 0.07
  Duodenal ulcer 2.5 2.0 1.9 3.5 0.02 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.3 0.9
  Gastric polyp 2.2 2.3 2.6 3.3 0.09 2.6 2.4 3.3 3.7 0.004
  Colonic polyp 4.1 4.3 4.9 5.8 0.03 1.8 1.7 2.0 3.3 <.0001
  Hepatitis 1.7 1.9 2.3 3.2 0.0004 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.2 0.005
Screening examination (%) 83.3 84.0 87.0 88.0 <.0001 86.0 86.3 88.8 89.9 <.0001
Total energy intake (kcal/day) (mean (SE)) 2206 (4.2) 2200 (12.1) 2222 (20.4) 2228 (18.1) 0.5 1886 (3.6) 1879 (8.6) 1938 (14.5) 1925 (12.9) 0.0001
Energy-adjusted Salt intake (g/d) 12.2 (0.03) 12.3 (0.07) 12.4 (0.1) 12.3 (0.1) 0.5 12.0 (0.08) 11.9 (0.05) 11.7 (0.09) 11.7 (0.08) 0.5
food intake Soy food (g/d) 86 (0.5) 93 (1.6) 89 (2.3) 89 (1.8) 0.0001 86 (0.5) 94 (1.2) 86 (1.6) 89 (1.6) <.0001
(mean (SE)) Green vegetables (g/d) 38 (0.2) 38 (0.6) 41 (1.2) 40 (1.0) 0.01 48 (0.2) 47 (0.6) 50 (1.1) 49 (0.8) 0.055
  Fruits (g/d) 172 (1.0) 187 (2.9) 189 (4.8) 204 (4.7) <.0001 239 (1.1) 242 (2.5) 242 (4.0) 254 (3.9) 0.001
  Fish (g/d) 91 (0.4) 91 (1.0) 92 (1.8) 92 (1.5) 0.7 87 (0.3) 86 (0.7) 86 (1.2) 86 (1.0) 0.4
  Red meat (g/d) 52 (0.3) 51 (0.7) 53 (1.3) 51 (1.0) 0.5 46 (0.2) 48 (0.5) 45 (0.8) 46 (0.7) 0.0009
Energy-adjusted α-tocopherol (mg/d) 6.6 (0.02) 6.8 (0.05) 7.1 (0.08) 7.1 (0.07) <.0001 7.3 (0.01) 7.5 (0.03) 7.5 (0.05) 7.6 (0.05) <.0001
nutrition intake Vitamin B1 (mg/d) 1.05 (0.003) 1.10 (0.008) 1.08 (0.01) 1.11 (0.01) <.0001 1.08 (0.002) 1.12 (0.006) 1.11 (0.009) 1.11 (0.008) <.0001
(mean (SE)) Vitamin B2 (mg/d) 1.41 (0.003) 1.45 (0.009) 1.50 (0.02) 1.52 (0.01) <.0001 1.43 (0.003) 1.46 (0.007) 1.51 (0.01) 1.54 (0.01) <.0001
  Niacin (mg/d) 20.1 (0.04) 20.1 (0.1) 20.6 (0.2) 20.4 (0.1) 0.002 18.1 (0.03) 18.1 (0.07) 18.2 (0.1) 18.3 (0.09) 0.08
  Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.56 (0.002) 1.58 (0.006) 1.60 (0.01) 1.60 (0.01) <.0001 1.46 (0.002) 1.47 (0.004) 1.48 (0.008) 1.49 (0.007) <.0001
  Vitamin B12 (μ g/d) 9.1 (0.03) 9.2 (0.09) 9.3 (0.1) 9.4 (0.1) 0.02 8.6 (0.03) 8.7 (0.06) 8.7 (0.1) 8.6 (0.09) 0.2
  Folate (μ g/d) 377 (0.9) 385 (2.7) 401 (4.9) 399 (4.1) <.0001 409 (0.9) 413 (2.2) 422 (3.8) 426 (3.1) <.0001
  Pantothenic acid (mg/d) 6.7 (0.01) 6.8 (0.03) 6.9 (0.05) 7.1 (0.05) <.0001 6.6 (0.008) 6.7 (0.02) 6.8 (0.03) 6.9 (0.03) <.0001
  Vitamin C (mg/d) 118 (0.4) 122 (1.2) 128 (2.2) 130 (1.9) <.0001 151 (0.5) 149 (1.1) 154 (1.7) 158 (1.6) <.0001
  Vitamin D (mg/d) 10.1 (0.04) 10.0 (0.1) 10.4 (0.2) 10.3 (0.2) 0.2 10.0 (0.04) 9.9 (0.09) 9.9 (0.1) 9.9 (0.1) 0.4
  1. Never use, neither past nor recent use; Past use, past use but not recent use; Recent use, recent use but not past use; Consistent use, both past and recent use.
  2. *SE, standard error; MET, metabolic equivalent task.