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Table 2 Association of socio-demographic, earthquake experiences and reproductive health factors with depression and anxiety

From: Reproductive health and access to healthcare facilities: risk factors for depression and anxiety in women with an earthquake experience

   HSCL-25 Scores   HSCL-25 Scores  
   Depression Anxiety Depression Anxiety
Variables Total Sample
%(N=387)
1.0-1.74
%(N=179)
≥ 1.75
%(N=208)
1.0-1.74
%(N=144)
≥ 1.75
%(N=243)
Crude OR
[95% CI]
Adjusted OR
[95% CI] †
Crude OR
[95% CI]
Adjusted OR
[95% CI] †
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS        
Age          
   35-49 59.4 42.5 38.9 45.8 37.4 1.0 - 1.0 -
   15-34 40.6 57.5 61.1 54.2 62.6 1.2 [0.8-1.7]   1.4 [0.9-2.2]  
Husband ever attended school          
   Yes 71.8 67.7 75.5 66.0 75.3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   No 28.2 32.4 24.5 34.0 24.7 1.5 [1.0-2.3] 1.5 [0.9-2.3] 1.6 [1.0-2.5] 1.5 [1.0-2.5]
Lived with husband in last 12 months          
   Yes 97.9 98.9 97.1 98.6 97.5 1.0 - 1.0 -
   No 2.1 1.1 2.9 1.4 2.5 2.6 [0.5-13.1]   1.8 [0.4-9.0]  
Subjected to gender violence
by husband or family members
         
   No 86.6 88.8 84.6 91.7 83.5 1.0 - 1.0 1.0
   Yes 13.4 11.2 15.4 8.3 16.5 1.5 [0.8-2.6]   2.2 [1.1-4.3] 2.2 [1.1-4.3]
Lost family business or job          
   No 58.4 64.2 53.4 61.1 56.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 -
   Yes 41.6 35.8 46.6 38.9 43.2 1.6 [1.0-2.4] 1.6 [1.0-2.4] 1.2 [0.8-1.8]  
EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCES         
Separated for > two day
from family members
         
   No 74.9 83.8 67.3 83.3 70.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   Yes 25.1 16.2 32.7 16.7 30.0 2.5 [1.5-4.1] 2.5 [1.5-4.0] 2.2 [1.3-3.6] 1.9 [1.1-3.3]
Saw neighbours or friends
or family members died
         
   No 71.8 74.3 69.8 78.1 68.2 1.0 - 1.0 1.0
   Yes 28.2 25.7 30.2 21.9 31.8 1.3 [0.8-2.0]   1.7 [1.0-2.7] 1.4 [0.9-2.3]
Slept > one night at a tent village          
   Yes 24.0 20.7 26.9 18.1 27.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   No 76.0 79.3 73.1 81.9 72.4 1.4 [0.9-2.3] 1.3 [0.8-2.1] 1.7 [1.0-2.9] 1.7 [1.0-2.8]
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH FACTORS        
Ever had stillbirth          
   No 93.1 4.0 9.5 95.8 91.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 -
   Yes 6.9 96.0 90.5 4.2 8.5 2.5 [1.0-6.2] 2.4 [1.0-6.0] 2.1 [0.8-5.4]  
Abortions in last four years
after earthquake a
         
   No 92.3 95.5 89.6 96.5 89.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   Yes 7.7 4.5 10.4 3.5 10.2 2.5 [1.1-5.7] 2.4 [1.0-5.8] 3.1 [1.2-8.3] 3.7 [1.3-10.6]
Complications with pregnancy
in last four years b
         
   Yes 78.1 82.6 74.1 84.3 74.0 1.0 - 1.0 1.0
   No 21.9 17.4 25.9 15.7 26.0 1.7 [0.9-3.1]   1.9 [1.0-3.6] 1.5 [0.8-2.9]
Had abnormal vaginal discharge or
genital ulcers or heard about STDs
         
   No 60.2 68.2 53.4 72.9 52.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   Yes 39.8 31.8 46.6 27.1 47.3 1.9 [1.2-2.9] 1.6 [1.0-2.4] 2.4 [1.6-3.8] 1.7 [1.0-3.0]
Ever heard of contraceptives
(Injectables, vasectomy, rhythms)
         
   No 10.9 15.6 6.7 17.4 7.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   Yes 89.1 84.4 93.3 82.6 93.0 2.6 [1.3-5.1] 2.6 [1.3-5.4] 2.8 [1.5-5.4] 2.9 [1.2-7.0]
Access to health facilities          
   Easy access 74.4 90.5 60.6 92.4 63.8 1.0   1.0  
   Difficult access 25.6 9.5 39.4 7.6 36.2 6.2 [3.5-11.0] - 6.9 [3.5-13.4] -
  1. Abbreviations: HSCL-25, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25; OR, Odds Ratios; CI, Confidence Interval; STDs, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
  2. †: Odds ratios mutually adjusted within each domain of socio-demographic, earthquake experiences and reproductive health.
  3. All variables with a P value of 0.05 or less in the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate logistic regression analysis.
  4. a Women who ever got pregnant; N = 378; Depression (N): Below cut-off = 177, Above cut-off = 201; Anxiety (N): Below cut-off = 142, Above cut-off = 236.
  5. b Women who delivered in last four year after the earthquake, N = 256; Depression (N): Below cut-off = 121, Above cut-off = 135; Anxiety (N): Below cut-off = 102, Above cut-off = 154.