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Table 3 Socio-demographic and behavioural (risk) characteristics among new drug injectors in 2005, 2007, and 2009, in Tallinn, Estonia

From: Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

  2005 2007 2009 P-value
  New injectors
(N = 73)
New injectors
(N = 57)
New injectors
(N = 38)
Chi-squared Test Chi-squared Test for Trend in Proportions
  N % N % N %   
Socio-demographics         
Age (years)         
< = 20 45 62% 23 40% 16 42%   
>20 28 38% 34 60% 22 58% 0.030 0.023
Gender         
Male 54 74% 45 79% 31 82%   
Female 19 26% 12 21% 7 18% 0.623 0.338
Ethnicity         
Russian+Russian speaking 57 78% 47 82% 34 89%   
Estonian 16 22% 10 18% 4 11% 0.330 0.140
Environmental factors         
Ever in drug treatment         
No 59 81% 48 84% 33 87%   
Yes 13 18% 9 16% 5 13% 0.799 0.503
Ever in prison         
No 44 60% 37 65% 26 68%   
Yes 29 40% 20 35% 12 32% 0.679 0.381
SEP use ever         
No 22 30% 16 28% 1 3%   
Yes 51 70% 41 72% 37 97% 0.003 0.003
SEP as the main source of syringes (last 4 weeks)         
No 41 56% 34 60% 9 24%   
Yes 32 44% 23 40% 29 76% 0.001 0.004
Injecting drug use         
Age at IDU initiation (years)         
< = 16 27 37% 7 12% 6 16%   
>16 46 63% 50 88% 32 84% 0.002 0.003
Frequency of injection (last 4 weeks)         
Less than daily 57 78% 30 53% 27 71%   
Daily 16 22% 27 47% 11 29% 0.008 0.189
Main drug injected (last 4 weeks)         
Fentanyl 35 48% 33 58% 23 61%   
Amphetamine 34 47% 23 40% 12 32% 0.321 0.132
Receptive sharing (last 4 weeks)         
No 54 74% 47 82% 30 79%   
Yes 19 26% 10 18% 8 21% 0.505 0.435
Sexual behaviors         
Number of sexual partners (last 12 months)         
0-1 32 44% 37 65% 15 39%   
1+ 40 55% 20 35% 23 61% 0.022 0.984
Condom use (last 4 weeks)*         
always 26 36% 11 19% 9 24%   
else 27 37% 15 26% 22 58% 0.199 0.076
  1. * Among those reporting vaginal or anal intercourses with in last 4 weeks