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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for controlling behavior and risks of lifetime exposure to sexual violence

From: Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
Characteristics RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Control in relationships     
Controlling behavior     
No 1 1 1 1
Yes 3.65 (2.92 - 4.56) 3.46 (2.70 - 4.43) 3.89 (2.49 - 6.08) 4.01 (2.54 - 6.34)
Justifying wife beating     
No   1 1 1
Yes   1.89 (1.57 - 2.27) 2.19 (1.58 - 3.05) 2.20 (1.56 - 3.11)
Decision-making autonomy     
No   1 1 1
Yes   0.53 (0.44 - 0.65) 0.55 (0.38 - 0.80) 0.61 (0.42 - 0.90)
Relationship inequality     
Spouses' relative earnings     
Woman earns same    1 1
Woman earns less    2.27 (0.83 - 6.22) 2.38 (0.87 - 6.56)
Woman earns more    4.70 (1.56 - 14.22) 4.73 (1.54 - 14.51)
Woman's partner does not contribute    1.89 (0.56 - 6.39) 2.03 (0.60 - 6.93)
Spouses' relative education     
Woman has same    1 1
Woman has less    0.62 (0.08 - 4.61) 0.64 (0.08 - 4.87)
Woman has more    1.69 (1.22 - 2.35) 1.53 (0.92 - 2.56)
Spouses' relative age     
Woman same age    1 1
Woman younger    1.24 (0.30 - 5.18) 1.14 (0.27 - 4.82)
Woman older    0.70 (0.06 - 8.11) 0.69 (0.06 - 7.99)
Type of union     
Monogamy    1 1
Polygamy    0.91 (0.64 - 1.29) 1.01 (0.70 - 1.45)
Demographic & socioeconomic characteristics     
Women's age     
≤ 24     1.30 (0.84 - 2.01)
25 - 34     1.27 (0.89 - 1.83)
≥ 35     1
Women's education     
No education     1.07 (0.37 - 3.07)
Primary     1.31 (0.69 - 2.47)
Secondary or higher     1
Women's occupation     
Professional/technical/management     1
Clerical/sales/services/skilled manual     0.86 (0.45 - 1.64)
Agricultural self-employed/agricultural employee/household & domestic/unskilled manual     1.04 (0.49 - 2.22)
Not working     0.89 (0.76 - 2.31)
Partner's education     
No education     0.60 (0.23 - 1.55)
Primary     0.88 (0.48 - 1.60)
Secondary or higher     1
Partner's occupation     
Professional/technical/management     1
Clerical/sales/services/skilled manual     2.22 (0.94 - 5.22)
Agricultural self-employed/agricultural employee/household & domestic/unskilled manual     1.86 (0.76 - 4.59)
Place of residence     
Urban     1
Rural     1.39 (0.95 - 2.04)
-2 Log likelihood 5478.06 4707.96 1480.78 1446.31
  1. a Controlling behavior only; b Added other measures of control; c Included relationship inequality; d Further included demographic and socio-economic characteristics;