Skip to main content

Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for controlling behavior and risks of lifetime exposure to physical violence

From: Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
Characteristics RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Control in relationships     
Controlling behavior     
No 1 1 1 1
Yes 2.77 (2.51 - 3.05) 2.51 (2.26 - 2.79) 2.87 (2.38 - 3.48) 3.04 (2.50 - 3.69)
Justifying wife beating     
No   1 1 1
Yes   1.55 (1.42 - 1.69) 1.57 (1.34 - 1.84) 1.66 (1.40 - 1.96)
Decision-making autonomy     
No   1 1 1
Yes   0.49 (0.44 - 0.54) 0.59 (0.49 - 0.70) 0.71 (0.59 - 0.86)
Relationship inequality     
Spouses' relative earnings     
Woman earns same    1 1
Woman earns less    0.89 (0.64 - 1.25) 1.09 (0.77 - 1.53)
Woman earns more    1.35 (0.86 - 2.10) 1.69 (1.07 - 1.53)
Woman's partner does not contribute    0.60 (0.36 - 0.98) 0.74 (0.44 - 1.22)
Spouses' relative education     
Woman has same    1 1
Woman has less    0.73 (0.28 - 1.89) 0.87 (0.33 - 2.31)
Woman has more    1.45 (1.22 - 1.73) 1.20 (0.91 - 1.58)
Spouses' relative age     
Woman same age    1 1
Woman younger    1.45 (0.69 - 3.08) 1.37 (0.64 - 2.93)
Woman older    1.05 (0.34 - 3.30) 0.97 (0.31 - 3.70)
Type of union     
Monogamy    1 1
Polygamy    1.02 (0.85 - 1.21) 1.09 (0.91 - 1.32)
Demographic & socioeconomic characteristics     
Women's age     
≤ 24     0.98 (0.77 - 1.23)
25 - 34     1.20 (1.00 - 1.43)
≥ 35     1
Women's education     
No education     0.73 (0.41 - 1.28)
Primary     1.08 (0.77 - 1.52)
Secondary or higher     1
Women's occupation     
Professional/technical/management     1
Clerical/sales/services/skilled manual     1.52 (0.33 - 2.31)
Agricultural self-employed/agricultural employee/
household & domestic/unskilled manual
    3.00 (1.99 - 4.51)
Not working     1.73 (0.46 - 3.92)
Partner's education     
No education     0.64 (0.38 - 1.07)
Primary     1.00 (0.72 - 1.38)
Secondary or higher     1
Partner's occupation     
Professional/technical/management     1
Clerical/sales/services/skilled manual     1.00 (0.72 - 1.41)
Agricultural self-employed/agricultural employee/household & domestic/unskilled manual     0.98 (0.68 - 1.41)
Place of residence     
Urban     1
Rural     1.28 (1.06 - 1.56)
-2 Log likelihood 15428.90 13600.19 4414.89 4261.09
  1. a Controlling behavior only; b Added other measures of control; c Included relationship inequality; d Further included demographic and socio-economic characteristics;