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Table 2 Comparison of subcutaneous adiposity and fat distribution variables among four ethnic groups by sex (adjusted mean ± standard error)

From: Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

  Chinese Lebanese Malays Thais Bonferroni comparisons
Boys      
   Waist circumference (cm) 66.7 ± 0.3§ 64.1 ± 0.4 62.6 ± 0.3§ 65.9 ± 0.4 P < 0.001 C = T > L > M
   Skinfold      
Biceps (mm)# 7.9 ± 0.2 9.1 ± 0.3§ 9.5 ± 0.2 6.6 ± 0.3 P < 0.001 C = L = M > T
Triceps (mm)# 15.5 ± 0.3 11.9 ± 0.4 13.0 ± 0.3 12.3 ± 0.4§ P < 0.001 C > L = M = T
Subscapular (mm)# 12.1 ± 0.4 11.4 ± 0.5 12.7 ± 0.4 - P = 0.115
Supraspinale (mm)# 15.1 ± 0.4 9.4 ± 0.5 12.1 ± 0.4 12.0 ± 0.5 P < 0.001, C > M = T > L
Medial calf (mm)# - 14.1 ± 0.4 11.8 ± 0.3 10.1 ± 0.4§ P < 0.001, L > M >T
Trunk (mm) # 28.0 ± 0.7 21.6 ± 0.9 25.6 ± 0.8 - P < 0.001, C = M > L
Trunk/upper extremity ratio # 1.15 ± 0.02 0.92 ± 0.03 0.99 ± 0.02 - P < 0.001, C > M > L
Supraspinale/upper extremity ratio # 0.62 ± 0.01 0.42 ± 0.02§ 0.48 ± 0.0§ 0.60 ± 0.02 P < 0.001, C = T > M > L
Subscapular/supraspinale ratio 0.88 ± 0.03 1.17 ± 0.04§ 1.09 ± 0.04§ - P < 0.001, C < L = M
Girls      
Waist circumference (cm) 63.4 ± 0.3 61.9 ± 0.3 59.7 ± 0.3 64.0 ± 0.3 P < 0.001, C = T > L > M
Skinfold      
   Biceps (mm)# 7.7 ± 0.2 8.2 ± 0.2 9.7 ± 0.2 6.7 ± 0.2 P < 0.001, M > L > C = T
   Triceps (mm)# 15.2 ± 0.3 11.7 ± 0.3 13.1 ± 0.3 13.2 ± 0.3 P < 0.001, C > M = T > L
   Subscapular (mm)# 11.4 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 0.3 11.3 ± 0.3 - P = 0.003, C = M > L
   Supraspinale (mm)# 14.9 ± 0.4 10.0 ± 0.4 12.6 ± 0.4 13.1 ± 0.4 P <0.001, C > M = T > L
   Medial calf (mm)# - 14.5 ± 0.4 13.5 ± 0.3 11.9 ± 0.3 P = 0.009, L > M = T
   Trunk (mm) # 26.2 ± 0.6 19.7 ± 0.7 23.9 ± 0.6 - P < 0.001,C > M > L
   Trunk/upper extremity ratio # 1.13 ± 0.02 0.94 ± 0.02 0.99 ± 0.02 - P < 0.001,C > L = M
   Supraspinale/upper extremity ratio # 0.63 ± 0.01 0.47 ± 0.01 0.52 ± 0.01 0.64 ± 0.01 P < 0.001, C = T > M > L
   Subscapular/supraspinale ratio 0.84 ± 0.02 1.06 ± 0.03 0.98 ± 0.03 - P < 0.001, L = M > C
  1. § Significant difference in adjusted mean value between boys and girls within each ethnic group using ANCOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparisons procedure
  2. Adjusted for BMI and age
  3. # Adjusted for body fat mass and age
  4. Adjusted for trunk fat
  5. C: Chinese; L: Lebanese; M: Malays; T: Thais