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Table 1 Personal characteristics of subjects in exposed groups (car-spray painters and car-mechanics) vs. control group

From: Biological Monitoring of Blood Naphthalene Levels as a Marker of Occupational Exposure to PAHs among Auto-Mechanics and Spray Painters in Rawalpindi

Parameters Car-Spray painters (n = 20) Car-Mechanics (n = 20) Control (n = 20) P-value a P-value b
Age (years) 27.5 (25.3-29)* 28.10 (25.25-30.8) 26.85 (22.3-29.7) 0.51 c 0.21 c
Height (cm) 171 (165-176) 170.6 (165-173.7) 171 (164-176) 0.77 c 1.00 c
Weight in (Kg) 61 (56-62.75) 58.50 (55-62) 59.50 (55-65) 0.84 d 0.67 d
BMI (kg/m2) 18.9 (18.2-20.3) 19.05 (18.4-20.7) 19.10 (18.2-20.9) 0.88 c 0.92 c
Income (× 103) Rs. 8.5 (6.5-11.5) 8.50 (8-10) 14 (12.3-16) <0.001 e <0.001 e
Expenditure versus Income     
Low 7 (35) ** 2 (10) 4 (20) <0.004 e <0.02 e
Equal 4 (20) 8 (40) 14 (70)   
High 9 (45) 10 (50) 2 (10)   
Education Level     
Under-Primary 16 (80) ** 8 (40) 0 (0) <0.001 e <0.001 e
Primary 3 (15) 7 (35) 3 (15)   
Secondary 1 (5) 4 (20) 12 (60)   
Higher-secondary 0 (0) 1 (5) 5 (25)   
Home ownership      
No 11 (55) 13 (65) 5 (25) <0.05 e <0.01 e
Yes 9 (45) 7 (35) 15 (75)   
Smoking Status      
Non-smoker 8 (40)** 11 (55) 17 (85) <0.005 e 0.225 e
Smoker 12 (60) 9 (45) 3 (15)   
Passive Smoking (at home)     
No 12 (60) 10 (50) 16 (80) <0.150 e <0.048 e
Yes 8 (40) 10 (50) 4 (20) r = 0. 59 f r = 0.62 f
  1. * Median (25th-75th)
  2. ** Frequency (% of total)
  3. a Car-spray painters v/s Control P-values
  4. b Car-mechanics v/s Control, P-values
  5. c Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test
  6. d Welch test
  7. e Chi-square test
  8. f = correlation between blood NAPH and presence of smoker at home