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Table 4 Association between characteristics of healthcare workers (HCW) and perceptions of the effectiveness of measures for improving adherence to hand hygiene^

From: Healthcare workers' and parents' perceptions of measures for improving adherence to hand-hygiene

  Support of leaders and senior managers Alcohol-based handrub availability Hand-hygiene posters displayed Hand-hygiene education/information
  No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value
Gender
Male 17 (58.6) NS NS 27 (90.0) NS NS 19 (63.3) NS NS 22 (73.3) NS NS
Female 63 (63.0)    82 (82.0)    75 (75.8)    79 (79.0)   
Professional category
Physician 24 (58.5) NS NS 36 (87.8) NS NS 26 (63.4) NS NS 28 (68.3) NS NS
Nurse 55 (61.8)    74 (82.2)    70 (78.7)    73 (81.1)   
Years of practice
≤5 25 (43.9) 0.000 0.001 44 (75.9) 0.022 0.023 37 (63.8) 0.016 NS 43 (74.1) NS NS
>5 54 (74.0)    66 (90.4)    59 (81.9)    60 (82.2)   
Type of Unit   
Medical/surgical 68 (65.4) NS NS 89 (84.8) NS NS 79 (76.0) NS NS 87 (82.9) 0.009 0.002
ICU 17 (51.5)    28 (84.4)    22 (66.7)    20 (60.6)   
Previous formal training
Yes 50 (68.5) NS NS 61 (82.4) NS NS 61 (83.6) 0.005 0.006 67 (90.5) 0.000 0.006
No 35 (54.7)    56 (87.5)    40 (62.5)    40 (62.5)   
  Visibility of clear and simple instructions Patients/parents invited to remind HCWs to perform hand hygiene Feedback to HCWs on their hand hygiene performance Being a good example for colleagues
  No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value No. and % answers with score ≥ 6 p-value Adjusted p-value
Gender
Male 21 (70.0) NS NS 23 (76.7) 0.049 NS 18 (64.3) NS NS 18 (60.0) NS NS
Female 76 (76.0)    58 (58.0)    72 (72.7)    43 (44.3)   
Professional category  
Physician 28 (68.3) NS NS 27 (65.9) NS NS 26 (66.7) NS NS 19 (46.3) NS NS
Nurse 72 (80.0)    54 (60.0)    65 (73.0)    44 (50.0)   
Years of practice
≤5 38 (65.5) 0.015 0.016 31 (53.4) NS NS 33 (57.9) 0.003 0.004 27 (48.2) NS NS
>5 61 (83.6)    50 (68.5)    58 (81.7)    37 (50.7)   
Type of Unit
Medical/surgical 86 (81.9) 0.006 0.001 63 (60.0) NS NS 77 (74.8) NS NS 53 (52.0) NS NS
ICU 19 (57.6)    23 (69.7)    19 (54.9)    13 (39.4)   
Previous formal training
Yes 59 (79.7) NS NS 48 (64.9) NS NS 57 (79.2) 0.022 0.041 33 (46.5) NS NS
No 46 (71.9)    38 (59.4)    39 (61.9)    33 (51.6)   
  1. ^ denominators used for calculating percentages vary from cell to cell, according to the number of respondents