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Table 2 *Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between maternal characteristics and folic acid supplement before and during pregnancy

From: Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST)

  FOLIC-ACID USE BEFORE PREGNANCY FOLIC-ACID USE DURING PREGNANCY
Characteristic None n = 265 <1,000 μg/day n = 209 ≥ 1,000 μg/day n = 64 <1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI) ≥ 1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI) None n = 182 <1,000 μg/day n = 295 ≥ 1,000 μg/day n = 62 <1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI) ≥ 1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI)
Maternal age at beginning of pregnancy           
<25 years 107 50 9 1.00 1.00 69 81 16 1.00 1.00
25-34 years 117 107 36 1.42 (0.83-2.43) 2.21 (0.87-5.59) 90 137 33 0.65 (0.37- 1.14) 0.82 (0.32-2.09)
35+ 41 51 19 1.31 (0.68-2.54) 2.20 (0.76-6.42) 22 77 12 1.60 (0.77-3.33) 1.49 (0.44-5.06)
Maternal ethnicity           
African American 165 71 21 1.00 1.00 137 98 22 1.00 1.00
Caucasian 85 122 39 2.00 (1.18-3.38) 2.99 (1.28- 7.00) 35 175 36 4.70 (2.60-8.51) 5.09 (2.07-12.49)
Asian/Native American 12 12 2 1.04 (0.39-2.80) 0.87 (0.15- 5.00) 8 16 2 1.10 (0.40-3.01) 0.77 (0.13-4.52)
Maternal marital status           
Married or live with partner 127 164 49 2.66 (1.59-4.45) 1.92 (0.86-4.33) 84 215 40 1.44 (0.87-2.41) 1.10 (0.46-2.69)
Not married or living with partner 137 45 15 1.00 1.00 97 80 21 1.00 1.00
Maternal education           
Less than high school 41 19 2 1.00 1.00 26 31 6 1.00 1.00
High school graduate/GED 97 39 10 1.12 (0.47-2.65) 3.40 (0.37-31.1) 78 61 7 0.85 (0.38-1.93) 0.62 (0.13-3.01)
College graduate/Graduate school Some college 126 151 52 1.70 (0.74-3.90) 7.60 (0.89-65.2) 77 203 48 1.69 (0.74-3.86) 2.37 (0.53-10.6)
Second hand smoke           
Yes 98 47 13 0.63 (0.36-1.12) 1.42 (0.57-3.50) 73 69 16 0.48 (0.27-0.84) 0.54 (0.21-1.38)
No 165 159 50 1.00 1.00 107 222 45 1.00  
Parity           
One 80 71 22 1.00 1.00 45 103 25 1.00 1.00
Two 51 46 16 1.02 (0.55-1.90) 1.63 (0.65-4.09) 36 63 14 0.90 (0.46-1.78) 0.73 (0.26-2.04)
Three or more 126 89 25 1.07 (0.62-1.85) 1.74 (0.69-4.04) 94 126 20 1.12 (0.61-2.04) 0.65 (0.26-1.62)
Pre-pregnancy body mass index           
<25 kg/m2 76 67 27 1.00 1.00 46 101 24 1.00 1.00
≥25 kg/m2 155 114 32 1.07 (0.67-1.71) 0.79 (0.39-1.59) 108 164 29 0.83 (0.50-1.39) 0.46 (0.20-1.05)
Co-morbid conditions           
Any chronic disease 105 77 13 0.83 (0.52-1.31) 0.45 (0.21-0.97) 70 101 24 0.92 (0.56-1.50) 0.95 (0.43-2.12)
None 159 131 51 1.00 1.00 110 194 37 1.00 1.00
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy           
Yes 69 36 7 0.82 (0.43-1.56) 0.40 (0.12-1.28) 36 64 13 2.37 (1.21-4.65) 1.39 (0.46-4.19)
No 195 173 57 1.00 1.00 145 231 48 1.00 1.00
  1. *Odds ratios are mutually adjusted, referents are women reporting no supplement use