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Table 1 Distribution of socio-demographic characteristics of participants and logistic regression analyses (N = 2022)

From: Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

Socio-demographic variables All participants
N = 2022
n(%)
Illegal motorcycle street racing frequency
n (%)
Logistic regression Model 1 Stunt riding
n(%)
Logistic regression
Model 2
   Very often/
Often
n= 620
Sometimes/
Rarely
n= 1402
P Exp (B)
(95.0% C.I.)
Racing and perform stunt
n= 1014
Racing only
n= 1008
P Exp (B)
(95.0% C.I.)
Personal characteristics          
Ethnicity          
Malay bumiputra 1850 (91.5) 567 (31.3) 1274 (68.9)   2.12 (1.19 - 3.76) * 938 (50.7) 912 (49.3)   2.45 (1.52 - 3.93) ***
Chinese 68 (3.4) 25 (36.8) 43 (63.2) < 0.05 2.60 (1.20 - 5.65) * 39 (57.4) 29 (42.6) < 0.01 2.51 (1.24 - 5.06) *
Indian 100 (4.9) 19 (19.0) 81 (81.0)   Reference 37 (37.0) 63 (63.0)   Reference
Non-Malay bumiputra 4 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0)    0 (0.0) 4 (100.0)   
Age          
15 and below 53 (2.6) 15 (28.3) 38 (71.7)    27 (50.9) 26 (49.1)   
16 to 25 1829 (90.5) 553 (30.2) 1276 (69.8) ns - 915 (50.0) 914 (50.0) ns -
26 to 35 140 (6.9) 52 (37.1) 88 (62.9)    72 (51.4) 68 (48.6)   
Marital status          
Never married 1926 (95.3) 583 (30.3) 1343 (69.7)    968 (50.3) 958 (49.7)   
Married 83 (4.1) 31 (37.3) 52 (62.7) ns - 39 (47.0) 44 (53.0) ns -
Separated/divorced/widowed 13 (0.6) 6 (46.2) 7 (53.8)    7 (53.8) 6 (46.2)   
Education attainment          
Primary school 199 (9.9) 82 (41.2) 117 (58.8)   2.09 (1.29 - 3.40) ** 123 (61.8) 76 (38.2)   2.60 (1.67 - 4.04) ***
Secondary school 1454 (71.9) 462 (31.8) 992 (68.2) < 0.001 1.87 (1.34 - 2.61) *** 767 (52.8) 687 (47.2) < 0.001 1.99 (1.50 - 2.64) ***
University 369 (18.2) 76 (20.6) 293 (79.4)   Reference 124 (33.6) 245 (66.4)   Reference
Occupation          
Professional and managerial 144 (7.2) 45 (31.3) 99 (68.8)   1.59 (1.00 - 2.51) * 61 (42.4) 83 (57.6)   
Skilled workers 350 (17.3) 112 (32.0) 238 (68.0)   1.25(0.91 - 1.71) 184 (52.6) 166 (47.4)   
Unskilled workers 461 (22.8) 130 (28.2) 331 (71.9) < 0.05 0.81 (0.59 - 1.10) 248 (53.8) 213 (46.2) ns -
Unemployed 299 (14.8) 99 (33.1) 200 (66.9)   1.10 (0.79 - 1.53) 152 (50.8) 147 (49.2)   
Student 768 (38.0) 234 (30.5) 534 (69.5)   Reference 369 (48.0) 399 (52.0)   
Personal monthly income (RM)          
500 and below 54 (5.9) 12 (22.2) 42 (77.8)    26 (48.1) 28 (51.9)   
501-1000 613 (66.6) 200 (32.6) 413 (67.4) ns - 326 (53.2) 278 (46.8) ns -
1001-2000 219 (23.8) 55 (25.1) 164 (74.9)    111 (50.7) 108 (49.3)   
above 2001 35 (3.8) 12 (34.3) 23 (65.7)    14 (40.0) 21 (60.0)   
Locality          
Urban 1114 (55.1) 348 (31.2) 766 (68.8) ns - 571 (51.3) 543 (48.7) ns -
Rural 908 (44.9) 272 (30.0) 636 (70.0)    443 (48.8) 465 (51.2)   
Family characteristics          
Parental marital status          
Married 1736 (85.9) 481 (27.7) 1255 (72.3) < 0.001 0.47 (0.35 - 0.63)*** 849 (48.9) 887 (51.1) < 0.05 0.91 (0.68 - 1.22)
Separated or divorced 286 (14.1) 139 (48.6) 147 (51.4)   Reference 165 (57.7) 121 (42.3)   
Household monthly income (RM)          
1000 and below 385 (21.8) 136 (35.3) 249 (64.7)   2.03 (1.38 - 2.99) *** 192 (49.9) 193 (50.1)   1.02 (0.73 - 1.42)
1001-2000 710 (40.2) 231 (32.5) 479 (67.5) < 0.001 1.84 (1.31 - 2.59) *** 373 (52.5) 337 (47.5) < 0.05 1.20 (0.90 - 1.61)
2001-3000 363 (20.5) 105 (28.9) 258 (71.1)   1.49 (1.02 - 2.16) * 197 (54.3) 166 (45.7)   1.21 (0.87 - 1.69)
above 3001 310 (17.5) 65 (21.6) 245 (79.0)   Reference 133 (42.9) 177 (57.1)   Reference
Maternal education attainment          
No formal schooling 203 (10.0) 78 (38.4) 125 (61.6)   0.60 (0.33 - 1.10) 100 (49.3) 103 (50.7)   
Primary school 307 (15.2) 86 (28.0) 221 (72.0) < 0.05 0.50 (0.31 - 0.83)** 160 (52.1) 147 (47.9) ns -
Secondary school 1224 (60.5) 357 (29.2) 867 (70.8)   0.78 (0.54 - 1.14) 591 (48.3) 633 (51.7)   
University 288 (14.2) 99 (34.4) 189 (65.6)   Reference 163 (56.6) 125 (43.4)   
Paternal education attainment          
No formal schooling 167 (8.3) 69 (41.3) 98 (58.7)   1.41 (0.76 - 2.61) 79 (47.3) 88 (52.7)   
Primary school 306 (15.1) 94 (30.7) 212 (69.3) < 0.05 1.04 (0.65 - 1.66) 154 (50.3) 152 (49.7) ns -
Secondary school 1195 (59.1) 348 (29.1) 847 (70.9)   0.84 (0.59 - 1.20) 587 (49.1) 608 (50.9)   
University 354 (17.5) 109 (30.8) 245 (69.2)   Reference 194 (54.8) 160 (45.2)   
Parental strictness          
Neither parent strict 560 (27.7) 228 (40.7) 332 (59.3)   1.99 (1.47 - 2.68) *** 356 (63.6) 204 (39.4)   2.22 (1.68 - 2.92) ***
At least one parent strict 850 (42.1) 267 (31.4) 584 (68.6) < 0.001 1.67 (1.26 - 2.20) *** 420 (49.4) 431 (50.6) < 0.001 1.61 (1.26 - 2.05) ***
Both parents strict 611 (30.2) 125 (20.5) 486 (79.5)   Reference 238 (39.0) 373 (61.0)   Reference
Health behavior          
Health protective behavior score
(mean ± SD), ranged 0-8
4.1 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 2.2 4.1 ± 2.1 ns - 4.4 ±2.1 3.8 ± 2.1 < 0.001 1.20 (1.14 - 1.27) ***
Health risk behavior score
(mean ± SD), ranged 0-5
2.1 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.0 < 0.001 1.20 (1.08 - 1.32) *** 2.3 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 0.9 < 0.001 1.56 (1.41 - 1.72) ***
Masculinity          
Masculinity score
(mean ± SD), ranged 0-21
15.7 ± 4.0 16.3 ± 4.2 15.4 ± 3.9 < 0.001 1.08 (1.04 - 1.11) *** 16.0 ± 4.1 15.4 ± 3.8 < 0.001 1.06 (1.03 - 1.08) ***
  1. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001.
  2. † Number of respondents less than 2022 (total respondent) due to non-applicable/non-response.
  3. ‡ The national average monthly household income in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) is RM3,686 (US$1 = RM3.08, as of November 6, 2010)
  4. Non-Malay bumiputra was not included in logistic regression due to small number
  5. Model 1 Binary logistic regression for illegal motorcycle street racing racing frequency very often/often versus sometimes/rarely; Hosmer and Lemeshow test, χ2 (8) = 11.228, P = 0.189
  6. Model 2 Binary logistic regression for racing and perform stunts versus racing only; Hosmer and Lemeshow test, χ2 (8) = 4.787, P = 0.780