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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate odds ratios for the relationship of happiness with demographic characteristics, perceived stress and health behaviour

From: Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

Variables Variable categories % happy Unadjusted (univariate) Adjusted (multivariate)
    Odds ratio (95% CI) p Odds ratio (95% CI)* p
Demographics       
   Gender Male (= ref) 29.80     
  Female 31.90 1.10 (0.96-1.28) 0.18 1.32 (1.12-1.55) 0.00
   Age 17-19 (= ref) 32.70     
  20-24 28.80 0.83 (0.72-0.96) 0.01 0.84 (0.72-0.98) 0.03
Nutrition       
   Body Mass Index (BMI) Underweight(= ref) 33.30   0.14   
  Normal weight 31.30 0.91 (0.61-1.37) 0.06   
  Overweight 31.40 0.91 (0.59-1.41) 0.69   
  Obese 17.90 0.44 (0.21-0.91) 0.03   
  No obese 31.40     
  Obese 17.90 0.48 (0.25-0.89) 0.02   
   Daily breakfast No always (= ref) 27.30     
  Always 34.10 1.38 (1.19-1.59) 0.00   
   Daily lunch No always (= ref) 25.70     
  Always 33.50 1.46 (1.25-1.70) 0.00 1.40 (1.18-1.66) 0.00
   Daily fruits and vegetables No always (= ref) 26.20     
  Always 34.30 1.47 (1.27-1.70) 0.00 1.34 (1.14-1.58) 0.00
Daily physical activity No always (= ref) 29.00     
  Always 34.80 1.30 (1.12-1.53) 0.00 1.33 (1.12-1.58) 0.00
Stress       
   Ordinary circumstances No (= ref) 36.50     
  Yes 27.20 0.65 (0.56-0.75) 0.00 0.73 (0.61-0.87) 0.00
   Exam/test periods No (= ref) 36.30     
  Yes 27.90 0.68 (0.58-0.79) 0.00 0.82 (0.68-0.99) 0.04
Drug use       
   Tobacco No (= ref) 29.60     
  Yes 32.10 1.12 (0.97-1.30) 0.11 1.20 (1.03-1.40) 0.02
   Alcohol No (= ref) 29.60     
  Yes 30.90 1.07 (0.88-1.30) 0.52   
   Prescriptive tranquillizers No (= ref) 31.70     
  Yes 22.40 0.62 (0.48-0.80) 0.00 0.62 (0.50-0.85) 0.00
   Modafinil (i.e., Mentix) No (= ref) 30.90     
  Yes 30.10 0.96 (0.68-1.36) 0.83   
   Inhalants No (= ref) 30.80     
  Yes 26.10 .79 (.41-1.53) 0.49   
   Marihuana No (= ref) 30.20     
  Yes 32.50 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 0.19   
   Cocaine No (= ref) 30.80     
  Yes 30.60 0.99 (0.58-1.71) 0.98   
   Unprescriptive tranquilizers No (= ref) 31.10     
  Yes 21.90 0.62 (0.41-0.94) 0.02   
   Unprescriptive analgesics No (= ref) 31.10     
  Yes 26.50 0.80 (0.59-1.08) 0.15   
   Unprescriptive amphetamines No (= ref) 30.90     
  Yes 20.40 0.57 (0.29-1.11) 0.10   
   Other drugs < 1% (heroine, hallucinogens, ecstasy) No (= ref) 30.50     
  Yes 30.00 1.52 (0.86-2.68) 0.15   
   Number of "illegal" drugs (range = 1-11) 0 31.10     
  1 30.20 0.96 (0.81-1.13) 0.22   
  2 31.90 1.03 (0.76-1.41) 0.30   
  3 24.30 0.71 (0.41-1.23) 0.23   
  1. * Method: Forward LR (they were just entered significant variables; variables not included in the final model were the following: age, physical activity, marihuana, tranquilizers without prescription, and analgesics without prescription.