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Table 5 Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) of Presenteeism for those with and without

From: Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

   Without co-morbid PD With co-morbid PD
HEALTH CONDITION Model n % RRR (95%CIs) % RRR (95%CIs)
Arthritis 61081 3.5 0.90 (0.73-1.12) 0.2 5.06** (3.18-8.05)
Asthma 61785 6.3 0.88 (0.76-1.02) 0.3 2.59** (1.79-3.75)
Back/neck pain 66278 29.6 0.91* (0.83-0.99) 1.5 4.20** (3.53-4.99)
Cancers 70037 3.1 0.80 (0.64-1.00) 0.14 4.44** (2.75-7.18)
COPD 67437 0.4 1.43 (0.92-2.23) 0.03 3.52* (1.30-9.54)
CVD 69564 0.8 1.17 (0.82-1.69) 0.06 3.58** (1.69-7.58)
Drug & Alcohol 67737 3.0 2.04* (1.16-3.59) 0.5 3.23** (1.64-6.36)
Diabetes 69422 2.0 0.96 (0.77-1.22) 0.12 3.62** (2.15-6.10)
Fatigue/sleep problems 70146 0.6 1.47* (1.06-2.04) 0.10 3.82** (2.23-6.56)
High Blood Pressure 66741 8.1 0.81* (0.69-0.93) 0.3 3.65** (2.63-5.07)
High Cholesterol 64532 5.7 0.87 (0.73-1.03) 0.2 4.03** (2.74-5.93)
Migraine/severe headache 66632 9.1 0.90 (0.79-1.02) 0.7 3.57** (2.83-4.49)
Obesity 67640 11.0 1.24** (1.11-1.38) 0.7 3.90** (3.08-4.93)
Workplace Injury 70682 7.0 1.11 (0.98-1.27) 0.5 4.83** (3.73-6.25)
  1. co-morbid psychological distress compared to the reference group that had neither the indexed health condition nor co-morbid psychological distress. Using multinomial logistic regression, reporting relative risk ratios for low productivity compared to average productivity (high productivity not reported)
  2. Adjusting for: number of co-morbidities, treatment-seeking behaviour, age, sex, education, income, marital status, children, income, occupation, industry, public/private sector, job security, contractor, hours worked in last week, supervisory role, rate of work accidents per employer, hours expected to work p.w. (as perceived by employee)
  3. *: p < 0.05; **: p < 0.001; † trend < 0.1